Advertorial: Benarkah Susu Rendah Lemak Kurang Kalsium?

Susu dan produk tenusu mengandungi protein, lemak dan karbohidrat yang seimbang. Selain itu, ia juga menjadi sumber kepada nutrien penting diperlukan tubuh termasuk kalsium, riboflavin(vitamin B2), fosforus, Vitamin A, D dan B12 serta asid pantotenik(vitamin B5).

Kalsium adalah nutrien penting yang diperlukan oleh tulang, gigi dan otot. Pengambilan kalsium yang tidak mencukupi dalam diet boleh menyebabkan masalah osteoporosis khususnya pada wanita selepas putus haid atau menopaus.

Osteoporosis adalah penyakit yang dicirikan oleh bertambahnya saiz rongga tulang yang mengakibatkan tulang menjadi rapuh. Penyakit ini biasanya dikaitkan dengan kehilangan kalsium. Individu osteoporosis (biasanya wanita) akan mudah mengalami keretakan tulang walaupun dengan hentakan kecil dan keretakan tulang pinggul paling kerap dilaporkan pada wanita selepas menopaus.

Dalam satu laporan yang dibentangkan pada Persidangan Osteoporosis IOF Regional Asia Pasifik ke-4 di Hong Kong tahun lalu, menyatakan ada perkembangan memberangsangkan bagi rakyat di rantau ini khususnya dalam soal kesihatan. Ini berita yang menggembirakan kerana kajian sebelum ini menunjukkan lebih 50 peratus kes keretakan tulang di dunia akan berlaku di Asia menjelang 2050.

Walaupun perkara ini membimbangkan, ia boleh dicegah dengan pengambilan makanan kaya kalsium seperti susu.

Soalnya, adakah rakyat negara kita mendapat cukup kalsium setiap hari? Dalam Soal Selidik Nutrisi Orang Dewasa Malaysia (MANS) mendapati secara purata pengambilan kalsium rakyat negara ini kurang daripada 500mg sehari, jauh lebih rendah daripada jumlah yang disarankan.

Pun begitu, rakyat kita sedar bahawa susu memainkan peranan penting untuk mendapatkan diet sihat. Indeks Tenusu Tetra Pak keenam menunjukkan Malaysia mencatatkan pengambilan susu paling tinggi di rantau ini dengan 21.3 liter setahun bagi setiap orang berbanding hanya 2.7 liter setahun seorang di seluruh dunia. Ia disebabkan kecenderungan rakyat Malaysia menikmati susu berperisa yang bukan saja enak malah turut menjadi sumber kalsium harian. Ini bermakna persepsi mengatakan minum susu boleh menggemukkan adalah tidak benar.

Sebenarnya bukan susu saja yang kaya dengan kalsium, malah ia banyak dalam sumber makanan lain seperti yogurt, keju, sardin, ikan bilis, sayur berdaun hijau gelap contohnya kailan dan brokoli, kekacang termasuklah dal, tempeh dan tauhu.

Walaupun sedar bahawa susu adalah antara sumber kalsium yang berkhasiat, masih ramai teragak-agak menjadikannya sebagai minuman harian. Mereka beranggapan susu yang rendah lemak, kurang kandungan kalsium. Hendak mengambil susu penuh krim, bimbangkan kandungan lemaknya yang hanya akan menambah pengambilan kalori.

Persoalan inilah yang akhirnya menyebabkan ramai menjauhi susu dan dengan itu semakin sukarlah badan hendak mendapat bekalan kalsium harian yang mencukupi.

Tahukah anda, berapa jumlah kalsium yang kita perlukan setiap hari? Keperluan ini berbeza antara individu, bergantung kepada usia dan jantina. Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia menyarankan golongan remaja (10 hingga 18 tahun) mengambil 1,000mg kalsium sehari. Begitu juga untuk wanita hamil dan menyusukan anak. Manakala golongan dewasa baik lelaki atau wanita yang berumur 19 hingga 40 tahun dinasihatkan mengambil 800mg kalsium sehari. Keperluan kalsium ini meningkat kepada 1,000mg sehari bagi warga emas berusia 50 tahun ke atas.

Jumlah kalsium diperlukan kanak-kanak juga berbeza mengikut usia iaitu:

• Kanak-kanak berusia satu hingga tiga tahun memerlukan 500mg kalsium setiap hari

• Kanak-kanak berusia empat hingga enam tahun memerlukan 600mg kalsium setiap hari

Kanak-kanak berusia 10 hingga 18 tahun memerlukan 1,000mg kalsium setiap hariBenarkah susu rendah lemak kurang kalsium?

Tidak. Sama ada susu skim, kurang lemak atau rendah lemak, semuanya mengandungi khasiat yang sama dengan susu penuh krim. Perbezaannya hanyalah pada kandungan lemak. Susu kurang lemak bermakna jumlah lemak kurang daripada tiga gram bagi 100 gram atau 1.5ml bagi setiap 100ml. Manakala susu tanpa lemak pula jumlah lemaknya kurang daripada 1.5gram bagi setiap 100gram atau 100ml.

Satu cawan susu penuh krim mengandungi antara 276 mg kalsium, manakala satu cawan susu rendah lemak mengandungi 339mg kalsium.

Menurut laman web kesihatan KidsHealth di Amerika Syarikat, mengurangkan kandungan lemak dalam susu tidak akan merendahkan kandungan kalsium di dalamnya kerana lemak di dalam susu tidak mengandungi kalsium. Mengurangkan kandungan lemak dalam susu boleh meningkatkan sedikit kandungan kalsiumnya.

Bagaimanapun dengan memilih susu skim atau rendah lemak, kita boleh menikmati kebaikan susu tanpa perlu bimbangkan kandungan lemak. Ini adalah berita baik bagi mereka yang hendak berusaha mengurangkan berat badan.

Jika minum susu terlebih dulu boleh membuatkan kita berasa cepat kenyang yang sekali gus akan mengurangkan keinginan atau kecenderungan untuk makan lebih banyak. Jadi secara tidak langsung, pengurusan berat badan akan menjadi lebih mudah dan pada masa sama kita mendapat sumber kalsium serta vitamin penting lain juga.

Kepentingan mengambil kalsium dengan jumlah mencukupi setiap hari diakui sangat penting, namun jika ia diambil secara berlebihan boleh mendatangkan masalah kepada kesihatan.

Antaranya batu karang dan gangguan terhadap proses penyerapan zink dan zat besi. Justeru, kita tidak digalakkan untuk mengambil kalsium secara berlebihan bagi mengelakkan sebarang komplikasi terhadap kesihatan. Untuk mengelakkan sebarang komplikasi, pengambilan jumlah kalsium tidak harus melebihi daripada keperluan badan.

Berapa banyak yang dikatakan terlebih? Institut Perubatan Amerika Syarikat menyarankan pengambilan kalsium maksimum sehari untuk semua peringkat umur ialah 2,500mg.

Sumber rujukan daripada Nestlē.

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