Amblyopia Kanak-kanak

MASALAH mata bukan sahaja menyerang orang dewasa, malah bayi yang baru dilahirkan tidak terkecuali mengalaminya.

Perunding Optalmologi dari Pusat Pakar Mata Optimax Sdn. Bhd., Dr. Suraiya Mohamad Shafie berkata, antara masalah biasa yang sering berlaku adalah amblyopia atau disebut mata malas.

Amblyopia atau mata malas merupakan keadaan kurang tahap penglihatan satu-satu mata akibat mata tersebut kurang digunakan sejak kecil lagi. Ia berpunca dari gangguan pada perkembangan sistem penglihatan semasa kecil.

“Antara punca biasa adalah rabun mata (seperti rabun jauh, rabun dekat atau astigmatisma) yang tidak diperbetulkan terutama rabun mata berkuasa tinggi atau perbezaan besar kuasa rabun mata di antara kedua-dua belah mata ,” katanya.

Keadaan itu katanya berlaku pada satu atau kedua-dua belah mata sekali gus. Jika berlaku pada sebelah, otak akan berhenti membaca bayangan daripada mata yang mengalami masalah. Lantaran itu, lama-kelamaan mata tersebut tidak mengalami stimulasi berterusan menyebabkan ia terus menjadi malas.

Namun kata Dr. Suraiya biasanya berlaku pada sebelah mata sahaja. Selain itu katanya, masalah lain seperti juling, katarak kongenital serta lain-lain penyakit yang menghalang proses penglihatan seperti ptosisi iaitu mata kuyu dan kelopak jatuh.

Bagaimana diketahui seseorang kanak-kanak menghidap amblyopia?

Kata Dr. Suraiya, kebanyakan kanak-kanak yang menghidap amblyopia tidak mempunyai sebarang tanda dan mereka tidak merungut kerana menyangka semua orang berpenglihatan seperti itu.

“Oleh itu adalah penting bagi kanak-kanak menjalani pemeriksaan mata secara berkala sebelum alam persekolahan kerana perkembangan penglihatan berlaku dengan pesat dari mereka lahir sehingga berusia tujuh atau lapan tahun,” katanya.

Seandainya, masalah tersebut dibiarkan sehingga usia mereka melebihi sembilan tahun dikhuatiri masalah yang dihadapi berlarutan sehingga dewasa dan mengakibatkan keadaan yang lebih kronik.

Dr. Suraiya turut memberi tips bagaimana ibu bapa boleh mengesan seandainya anak mereka berkemungkinan mengalami amblyop melalui tanda-tanda seperti berikut:

l kepalanya senget dan suka memandang dengan menjeling

l mata beralih dari tengah bila letih atau berada dalam cahaya terang

l menutup sebelah mata apabila terdedah kepada cahaya matahari

l sering menggosok mata

l sering mengerlipkan mata

l lebih gemar menggunakan satu mata untuk melihat

Jika rawatan awal tidak diberikan, mata tersebut tidak akan berkembang untuk mencapai tahap penglihatan normal dan berkemungkinan menjadi buta.

Rawatan amblyopia hanya berkesan jika dilaksana pada peringkat kanak-kanak. Sebahagian rawatan boleh dijalankan oleh ibubapa setelah mendapat latihan daripada Pakar Oftalmologi atau Pegawai Optometri. Rawatan merangkumi salah satu atau gabungan beberapa kaedah seperti berikut :

Merawat penyakit mata sedia ada seperti pembedahan untuk katarak.

Doktor juga katanya akan merawat rabun mata dengan cermin mata atau kanta sentuh. Kanak-kanak tadi turut diberi ubat cecair untuk mata.

Selain itu, pemakaian penutup mata (eye patch) membantu merangsang penglihatan mata yang malas untuk berkerja seperti biasa semula. Kanak-kanak itu juga akan menjalani latihan atau senaman mata.

Alahan mata

Menurut Dr. Suraiya, selain amblyopia, masalah alahan mata juga sering berlaku pada kanak-kanak berusia antara tiga dan empat tahun.

“Ia boleh dilihat dengan jelas melalui keadaan mata yang mengalami kegatalan, berair dan keluar lendir putih,” kata beliau.

Keadaan itu menurut beliau berkait dengan masalah asma, sinusitus dan juga alahan kulit. Faktor alam sekitar turut memainkan peranan terjadinya alahan iaitu persekitaran berhabuk, debunga, bulu haiwan seperti kucing, hama pada permaidani, asap rokok dan juga minyak wangi.

Masalah itu perlu dirawat segera kerana jika dibiarkan kanak-kanak tadi menggosok mata, ia boleh mengundang kecederaan serta parut pada kornea.

Ibu bapa katanya perlu meletakkan ubat titis dan mengelak daripada punca yang menyebabkan alahan pada mata anak.

Dr. Suraiya turut menasihatkan agar menggunakan ubat titis yang tidak mengandungi steroid kerana ia boleh mengundang komplikasi seperti glaukoma dan kataraks pula.

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