Anoro Ellipta Legakan COPD

Sekitar 500,000 rakyat Malaysia menghidap penyakit sekatan pulmonari kronik atau dikenali sebagai COPD. Penyakit COPD kronik menyebabkan pesakit mengalami sesak nafas, batuk dan mengeluarkan kahak yang banyak secara berterusan dan semakin teruk dari semasa ke semasa.

Kebanyakan kes COPD terbentuk selepas pendedahan berpanjangan kepada jelaga yang merosakkan paru-paru dan saluran udara, terutama paip, cerut, asap tembakau dan lain-lain, bahkan asap pasif turut menyakitkan paru-paru dan menyebabkan COPD.

Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) menyatakan pada 2030, COPD dijangka menjadi penyebab ketiga kematian di seluruh dunia. Di peringkat global, penyakit ini dialami lebih 64 juta orang dan 3 juta meninggal dunia akibat COPD.

Pakar Perunding Paru-Paru, Institut Perubatan Respiratori Kementerian Kesihatan, Prof Datuk Dr Abdul Razak Muttalif berkata COPD ialah masalah kesihatan yang semakin serius di negara ini.

“Bagaimanapun ia sering disalah diagnosis serta menyebabkan penularan penyakit yang menjejaskan kualiti hidup pesakit. Keadaan ini menghalang mereka melakukan kegiatan biasa seperti berjalan dan naik turun tangga serta melakukan senaman ringan.

“Justeru pengurusan penyakit secara berkesan menerusi pematuhan lebih baik untuk meningkatkan kualiti hidup pesakit,” katanya kepada media pada pelancaran Anoro Ellipta Dwibronkodilator sekali sehari, penjagaan baru bagi penghidap COPD di Malaysia, baru-baru ini.

Menurutnya, merokok satu punca utama mengundang penyakit ini manakala simptom seperti sekatan aliran udara secara beransur serta hiperinflasi paru-paru menjadikan penyakit ini lebih serius.

“Simptom paling umum COPD adalah sesak nafas (tercungap-cungap), lebihan air liur dan mukosa dalam saluran pernafasan serta batuk kronik.

“Apabila keadaan bertambah kronik, aktiviti biasa seperti makan dan berjalan kaki boleh menimbulkan cabaran seterusnya menyebabkan pesakit kehilangan berat badan serta menjadi lebih lemah,” katanya.

Disebabkan kelaziman aktiviti merokok tembakau dan pencemaran udara di Asia Pasifik, kejadian COPD terus meningkat. Malangnya kebanyakan kes tidak dapat dikenal pasti disebabkan sering dikelirukan dengan penyakit asma disebabkan simptom serupa.

Di Malaysia, COPD menduduki tempat kelima dari segi bebanan penyakit dan ini dilihat hasil kadar kemasukan hospital akibat COPD.

Dalam pada itu, Pengarah Perubatan Negara GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) Malaysia dan Brunei, Dr Saikiran Leekha berkata, selepas melabur lebih 10 tahun dalam pembangunan dan reka bentuk produk, pihaknya berbangga memperkenalkan Anoro Ellipta kepada orang ramai bagi menguruskan COPD dengan lebih baik.

“Kemajuan terbaru ini memberi profesional penjagaan kesihatan pilihan baru untuk dipertimbangkan penghidap COPD. GSK memahami kepentingan pembangunan inovasi yang dapat memenuhi keperluan pesakit.

“Dengan Anoro Ellipta, pesakit dapat melegakan simptom mereka dengan lebih baik.Disebabkan warisan inovasi kiami,

GSK menjadi salah satu pemimpin dalam bidang pernafasan selama lebih 45 tahun dan kami akan terus membangun serta menghasilkan alat sedut dalam usaha meningkatkan kualiti hidup pesakit,” katanya.

Rawatan COPD

- Langkah pertama berhenti merokok. Bincang dengan doktor cara terbaik untuk berhenti merokok. Pelbagai cara diperkenalkan seperti klinik berhenti merokok, rawatan gantian nikotin, ubat-ubatan untuk kurangkan gian merokok dan kaunseling.

- Pendedahan kepada asap, gas kimia dan habuk perlu dikurangkan selain mengelak menghidu asap rokok perokok lain (perokok pasif).

- Mengambil suntikan vaksin selesema dan kurang bergaul dengan orang ramai ketika musim demam.

- Rawat penyakit ini dengan ubat mengikut nasihat doktor boleh mengawal kesannya. Kebanyakan ubat COPD waktu ini sedutan inhaler yang disedut terus ke saluran udara dan mengurangkan kesempitan dan inflamasi saluran udara.

- Ubat sedut juga mempunyai kesan sampingan kurang berbanding ubat yang dimakan seperti berdebar-debar dan tangan menggeletar. Pesakit digalakkan menulis nama semua ubat biji dan ubat sedutan untuk rujukan doktor ketika kecemasan. Kalau boleh, simpan ubat dalam kotak supaya tidak lupa makan ubat.

- Eksaserbasi/keterukan COPD. Ini berlaku kerana pesakit COPD mengalami tanda mudah penat, kahak pekat dan berlebihan warna daripada biasa. Keadaan ini terjadi apabila pesakit COPD demam selesema, terdedah pada habuk atau jerebu dan pesakit COPD tidak makan ubat seperti diarah doktor.

- Senaman dan rehabilitasi pulmonari sangat penting bagi menguatkan otot pernafasan supaya proses pernafasan menjadi mudah di samping menambah stamina pesakit.

- Diet. Kebanyakan penghidapnya menjadi kurus dan mengalami keadaan reput tulang osteoporosis. Pesakit COPD memerlukan tenaga 10 kali ganda berbanding individu normal untuk bernafas. Pemakanan seimbang memberi pesakit tenaga untuk menjalankan tugas harian.

- Rawatan oksigen. Ia diberi kepada pesakit yang berada di peringkat sangat teruk iaitu pada tahap oksigen dalam darah kurang 90 peratus. Oksigen boleh diberi dengan beberapa cara seperti tangki oksigen atau oxygen concentrator. Rawatan ini membolehkan pesakit COPD kronik memperoleh kualiti hidup lebih baik.

- Pembedahan. Ia cara terakhir dalam rawatan penyakit COPD, namun bukan cara terbaik kerana risiko pembedahan tinggi. Antara pembedahan dijalankan untuk pesakit COPD adalah bullectomy dan pemindahan paru-

- Ubah suai cara hidup jika peringkat COPD sangat teruk, anda mungkin tidak berupaya melakukan kerja harian. Oleh itu, anda mungkin memerlukan bantuan mereka yang terdekat.

Ubah suai adaptasi diri

- Mendapatkan pertolongan ahli keluarga atau kawan untuk tugas penting.

- Simpan semua benda penting di satu tempat berdekatan supaya tidak perlu berjalan jauh.

- Guna pakaian longgar supaya pernafasan tidak susah.

- Rancang sebelum keluar rumah dan sentiasa memastikan pengambilan ubat sebelum keluar rumah.

- Bawa nombor telefon rumah, anak atau kawan supaya boleh dihubungi ketika kecemasan.

- Anda dinasihatkan tidak keluar rumah dalam keadaan kurang sihat.

- Jika hendak meninggalkan rumah untuk jangkamasa panjang (melawat anak di negeri lain), jangan lupa membawa ubat anda (buku catatan ubat-ubatan atau surat rujukan daripada doktor).

- Pengurusan diri sendiri untuk penyakit ini sangat penting kerana kebanyakan pesakit COPD hanya diperiksa doktor tiga atau empat bulan sekali. Semua pesakit mesti mencatatkan rawatan penyakit mereka, ikut arahan doktor dan jangan lupa temu janji doktor.

Antara tanda umum masalah paru-paru:

- Sukar bernafas.

- Nafas menjadi pendek (tercungap-cungap apabila bernafas).

- Berasa seperti tidak cukup udara.

- Kemampuan untuk bersenam berkurang.

- Batuk yang tidak surut walaupun mengambil pelbagai jenis ubat.

- Batuk berdarah atau berkahak.

- Sakit atau tidak selesa apabila menarik dan menghembuskan nafas.

Kaedah menjaga paru-paru:

- Berhenti merokok.

- Elak menjadi perokok sekunder.

- Elak persekitaran tercemar.

- Kurangkan penggunaan bahan kimia industri atau domestik.

- Jika bekerja dalam industri berkaitan kimia, pakai topeng penutup muka.

- Amalkan pemakanan seimbang dan gaya hidup sihat.

- Kawal penyakit (jika anda menghidap penyakit berkaitan paru-paru).

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