Atasi Pedih Ulu Hati

FAKTA memang tidak berbohong. Penyakit sistem penghadaman semakin meningkat saban hari dan kini menjadi 10 punca kematian paling tinggi di Malaysia. Ketahui lebih lanjut nasihat pakar sistem penghadaman tentang bagaimana risiko dapat dikurangkan dan cara pengurusan masalah penghadaman anda. Panel pakar kami akan cuba menjawab persoalan atau menjelaskan segala keraguan anda tentang kesihatan penghadaman. Hantarkan soalan anda bersama dengan nama, jantina, umur, alamat dan nombor telefon ke emel: digestivehealth@versa-group.coml dan faks ke: 03-5638 9909.

Kandungan artikel ini adalah sebagai panduan atau rujukan sahaja, dan tidak bertujuan menggantikan nasihat perubatan daripada doktor.

Soalan 1: Ayah saya meninggal dunia pada tahun lepas kerana barah usus. Adakah ini bermakna risiko saya mendapat barah usus juga tinggi? Jika ya, adakah terdapat langkah pencegahan untuk mengurangkan faktor risiko?

Pembaca: Kamisah

Ya, salah satu faktor risiko utama anda mendapat barah usus adalah ahli keluarga yang disahkan menghidap barah usus. Malah, 1 dalam setiap 5 orang yang mendapat barah usus mempunyai ahli keluarga lain yang disahkan menghidap penyakit ini. Risiko ini meningkat sekiranya mereka yang disahkan adalah ahli keluarga terdekat (ibu bapa, adik-beradik atau anak-anak), atau jika ahli keluarga mendapat barah pada usia muda. Sebab kepada risiko tinggi ini tidak begitu jelas, meskipun penyakit kanser dipercayai “diwarisi dalam keluarga” disebabkan gen yang diwarisi dan faktor perkongsian persekitaran, atau kombinasi kedua-duanya.

Mereka yang mungkin menghidap kanser kolon mungkin menunjukkan beberapa tanda amaran seperti perubahan dalam tabiat membuang air besar (sembelit atau cirit-birit), najis berdarah, sakit abdomen yang teruk atau penurunan berat badan tanpa sebab. Jangan biarkan gejala ini, dapatkan pemeriksaan doktor dengan segera jika anda menunjukkan gejala-gejala di atas.

Anda boleh mengurangkan risiko mendapat barah usus dengan mengamalkan diet dan gaya hidup yang sihat. Makan lebih banyak makanan yang kaya dengan oksidan seperti buah-buahan sitrus dan sayuran hijau gelap dan kuning, dan makanan rendah lemak dan tinggi serat (sekurang-kurangnya 25 g serat sehari). Senaman dan pengambilan 1,000 mg kalsium sehari juga boleh membantu. Di samping itu, berhenti merokok jika anda merokok dan hadkan pengambilan alkohol.

Ketiadaan sebarang faktor risiko tidak bermakna seseorang individu tidak akan mendapat barah usus. Bagaimanapun, lebih banyak faktor risiko yang anda miliki, lebih tinggi risiko anda menghidapinya. Segera dapatkan pemeriksaan doktor jika anda menunjukkan sebarang gejala atau tanda amaran, iaitu kehilangan berat badan tanpa sebab, perubahan tabiat membuang air besar dan pendarahan dalam najis, atau jalani pemeriksaan biasa secara tetap kerana barah usus boleh dicegah dengan pengesanan awal.

Soalan 2: Ketika mengandung, saya mengalami refluks asid yang berterusan, menyebabkan pedih ulu hati. Apakah sebenarnya punca pedih ulu hati dan apakah langkah-langkah untuk mengurangkannya atau lebih baik lagi, mencegahnya?

Pembaca: Syafiqah

Pedih ulu hati sebenarnya adalah rasa perit yang boleh dirasai di dada dan kerongkong. Ia berlaku apabila asid dari perut bergerak masuk semula ke esofagus. Mulut anda juga akan berasa masam dan berasid. Jika anda mengalami refluks asid yang berterusan lebih daripada dua kali seminggu, ini dikenali sebagai Penyakit Refluks Gastroesofugus (GERD).

Ramai wanita mengandung mengalami tanda refluks asid pada trimester ketiga kehamilan disebabkan peningkatan paras hormon yang melembutkan ligamen, kebiasaannya memastikan sfinkter esofagus bahagian bawah (LES) sentiasa ketat. Uterus yang lebih besar juga menyebabkan organ dari abdomen ke perut tertolak pada diafragma menyebabkan berlakunya refluks asid kerana fungsi LES terjejas. Gejala refluks asid juga boleh disebabkan oleh hernia hiatus, yang menolak sebahagian daripada perut melalui diafragma hiatus. Oleh sebab berat badan bertambah semasa mengandung, berat berlebihan pada bahagian pinggang sering kali menekan abdomen dan meningkatkan tekanan pada bahagian dalam. Tekanan ini boleh memaksa makanan masuk ke dalam esofagus

Antara golongan yang mudah menghidap refluks asid termasuklah mereka yang makan secara berlebihan, minum terlalu banyak alkohol, dan mengambil ubat tertentu, makanan berempah dan berminyak, dan juga makanan berasid. Mereka ini juga mempunyai risiko yang tinggi untuk mendapat GERD. Makanan yang boleh memburukkan lagi gejala GERD termasuklah pudina, coklat, tomato, bawang, makanan berlemak, kopi, teh, jus buah- buahan sitrus dan alkohol. Sebaliknya, pengambilan sedikit halia boleh mengurangkan gejala GERD.

Anda boleh mengurangkan gejala refluks asid dengan makan sedikit tetapi secara lebih kerap, selalu bersenam (tetapi elakkan senaman melompat naik dan turun dan sebarang aktiviti membongkok ke depan) dan memakai pakaian longgar. Anda juga boleh mengurangkan gejalanya dengan menaikkan sedikit kepala katil dan juga tidur mengiring ke kiri, kerana dalam kedudukan ini, perut lebih rendah daripada esofagus. Jangan minum alkohol dan berhenti merokok jika anda mengalami sebarang gejala asid refluks. Anda juga patut mendapatkan rawatan perubatan dengan segera jika muntah teruk.

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