Awas! Najis Berdarah

KANSER kolon merupakan kanser yang terdapat di dalam usus besar (kolon) iaitu bahagian bawah sistem pencernaan anda. Kanser rektal pula terdapat di lapan hingga 10 inci terakhir kolon.

Apabila kedua-duanya bergabung, ia dikaitkan dengan kanser kolorektal dan menjadi punca kedua kematian yang melibatkan kanser di Malaysia terutamanya kaum lelaki.

Menurut Perunding Bedah Kolorektal dan Laparoskopik Hospital Prince Court, Dr. Yunus Gul Alif Gul, kes kanser kolorektal kini semakin meningkat.

“Dianggarkan 10 peratus menghidap penyakit ini di seluruh dunia. Kes pertama yang dilaporkan di Malaysia adalah pada 2002. Statistik terkini menunjukkan 14.2 peratus pesakit adalah lelaki dan sembilan peratus pesakit wanita. Secara keseluruhannya, orang Cina paling banyak menghidap kanser ini. Kanser ini juga menjadi penyakit kedua tertinggi selepas kanser payudara bagi wanita dan paling banyak di kalangan lelaki,” ujarnya.

Dr. Yunus Gul menerangkan, simptom penyakit ini adalah perdarahan dari dubur, perubahan rutin membuang air besar, sembelit, anemia (kurang darah), berat badan menurun dan ada kemungkinan tidak ada gejala. Ini bergantung pada ukuran dan kedudukan tumor.

Tambahnya, kanser ini boleh merebak tanpa mengira usia.

“Statistik menunjukkan lebih 80 peratus pesakit merupakan mereka yang berusia 50 tahun ke atas. Namun, jika anda pernah mempunyai kanser atau adenoma polipus, anda berisiko lebih tinggi untuk menghidap kanser kolorektal pada masa akan datang.

Kebarangkalian anda menghidapi kanser kolorektal adalah tinggi sekiranya ahli keluarga anda mempunyai penyakit tersebut,” jelasnya.

Dr. Yunus Gul menyarankan, jika terdapat simptom-simptom kanser kolorektal, segera berjumpa doktor untuk ujian penyaringan yang teratur.

Tambahnya, di Amerika Syarikat misalnya, terdapat saranan supaya penyaringan kanser kolorektal bermula pada usia 50 tahun dan ia diadakan dengan lebih kerap atau lebih awal jika anda mempunyai latar belakang keluarga yang menghidap penyakit tersebut.

“Penyaringan amat penting untuk mengesan polipus sebelum ia bertukar kanser. Pesakit juga mempunyai peluang yang baik untuk pulih jika kanser berjaya dikesan pada peringkat awal.

Kebanyakan kes yang saya temui sudah di peringkat ketiga dan keempat.

Perasaan risau dan takut untuk melakukan ujian penyaringan perlu diubah. Kebanyakan prosedur ini hanya mendatangkan ketidakselesaan yang minimum,” tambah beliau.

Dr. Yunus menjelaskan, antara penyaringan yang dilakukan adalah dengan menjalani pemeriksaan rektal secara digital.

Selain itu, doktor akan melakukan ujian darah fekal okulta untuk memeriksa sampel najis.

Kaedah lazim lain yang sering digunakan ialah sigmoidoskopi yang fleksibel dengan menggunakan tiub halus dan berlampu di hujungnya untuk memeriksa rektum dan sigmoid anda.

“Doktor juga sering menggunakan kolonoskop iaitu satu tiub yang panjang dan halus disambungkan ke kamera video dan monitor bagi membolehkan doktor melihat keseluruhan kolon dan rektum anda.

Kebiasaannya, doktor turut melakukan ujian genetik. Ini penting bagi anda yang mempunyai latar belakang sejarah kanser kolorektal,” katanya.

Golongan berisiko

Kanser ini juga dikaitkan dengan diet yang rendah fibernya dan tinggi dalam lemak dan kalori.

Keadaan semakin rumit apabila anda tidak melakukan senaman atau tidak aktif kerana sisa-sisa buangan akan berada di dalam kolon anda dengan lebih lama.

Justeru Dr. Yunus Gul menggalakkan anda melakukan aktiviti fizikal secara teratur bagi mengurangkan risiko kanser merebak.

Tambah beliau, mereka yang merokok dan minum alkohol juga berisiko tinggi menghidap penyakit ini.

Apa yang merunsingkan beliau, ramai pesakit keliru dengan simptom kanser ini dengan buasir apabila adanya darah di dalam najis.

“Ia mungkin menunjukkan tanda-tanda berlakunya kanser tetapi ia juga boleh menunjukkan keadaan-keadaan lain. Darah merah yang anda lihat pada tisu tandas mungkin akibat buasir atau koyakan kecil di dalam dubur anda. Bagaimanapun, lebih baik jika anda berjumpa doktor dengan segera jika terdapat sebarang tanda darah atau perubahan di dalam bentuk najis kerana ia boleh menunjukkan tanda yang lebih serius. Seelok-eloknya anda berjumpa doktor jika ia berlaku lebih daripada tiga hari dan berterusan,” katanya.

Rawatan dan pencegahan

Menurut Dr. Yunus Gul, rawatan yang lazim bagi kanser ini adalah pembedahan tetapi ia berbeza dengan kaedah pembedahan 10 tahun dahulu.

“Jika dahulu, pembedahan akan meninggalkan saiz parut yang besar pada bahagian perut tetapi sekarang ia hanya meninggalkan parut sebesar ibu jari. Malah, ada pesakit yang boleh bekerja selepas dua atau tiga minggu melakukan pembedahan.

“Rawatan kimoterapi pula bergantung pada tahap kanser. Walaupun kanser ini boleh dirawat, pesakit yang menjalani pembedahan perlu melakukan ujian penyaringan sepanjang 10 tahun pertama.

Ini kerana kanser ini berpotensi menyerang lagi di tempat lain atau kawasan yang sama,” ujarnya.

Sama seperti penyakit lain, ubat yang paling mujarab merawat penyakit ini adalah pencegahan.

Untuk itu, Dr. Yunus Gul menasihatkan agar mengamalkan cara hidup sihat, makan lebih sayuran dan makanan berserat tinggi, banyakkan minum air masak, elakkan alkohol, rokok dan bersenam.

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