Badan Sihat Mudah Beribadat

SEMUA jemaah haji termasuk kanak-kanak yang dibawa untuk mengerjakan haji diwajibkan menjalani pemeriksaan kesihatan dan mempunyai surat akuan doktor bagi memperolehi visa haji.

Ini merupakan peraturan yang ditetapkan oleh Kerajaan Arab Saudi bagi semua jemaah yang ingin menunaikan fardu haji.

Sebelum ke tanah suci semua bakal jemaah perlu perlu mendapatkan pemeriksaan kesihatan di klinik kesihatan atau hospital. Pemeriksaan ini penting bagi mengetahui status kesihatan diri jemaah.

Selain itu, semua bakal haji mesti mendapatkan suntikan anti meningitis iaitu meningococcal Quadrivalent Vaccine ACYW-135 yang boleh diambil di klinik atau hospital.

Pihak Berkuasa Arab Saudi telah mewajibkan semua bakal haji mendapatkan suntikan ini sebelum mengerjakan haji. Suntikan ini akan diperakukan oleh doktor dan direkod dalam Buku Rekod Rawatan.

Pun begitu, semua jemaah perlu melakukan persiapan diri untuk mengelakkan penyakit lain yang mungkin menganggu kelancaran ibadat haji.

Sindrom Pernafasan Timur Tengah (MERS) Menurut Penyelaras Unit Perkembangan Kesihatan Wanita (Pakar Obstetrik & Ginekologi) Pusat Pengajian Sains Perubatan Kampus Kesihatan Universiti Sains Malaysia Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Profesor Madya Dr. Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain, penyakit Sindrom Pernafasan Timur Tengah dikenal juga sebagai Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV merupakan satu daripada ahli keluarga (strain) dari kumpulan coronavirus.

“Ia adalah kumpulan keluarga virus besar dan meliputi pelbagai strain yang boleh menjangkiti manusia dan haiwan. Penyakit ini boleh berjangkit. Virus ini seakan-akan dengan virus Sindrom Pernafasan Akut Teruk (SARS) yang pernah mencetuskan kebimbangan global sekitar tahun 2003 dan meragut sehingga 800 nyawa.

Sama seperti SARS, MERS akan menyebabkan jangkitan paru-paru, pesakit akan mengalami kesukaran untuk bernafas, batuk tetapi sedikit berbeza kerana ia akan menyebabkan pesakit mengalami kegagalan buah pinggang yang teruk,” ujarnya.

Tambah Dr. Nik Hazlina, penyakit ini berpunca kerana manusia dari seluruh dunia bergerak dari satu tempat ke tempat lain. Jemaah haji juga perlu dipantau dan langkah pencegahan harus diambil bagi mengelak terkena jangkitan.

Pegawai kesihatan turut menyatakan kebimbangan mereka kerana kadar kematian semakin meningkat dan berpendapat virus MERS ini boleh mencetuskan krisis global yang baru jika ia tersebar dengan pesat.

Beliau menjelaskan, kes ini adalah kejadian kecemasan kesihatan awam yang kritikal bukan hanya bagi negara yang terbabit tetapi juga terhadap masyarakat dunia.

“Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) mula melaporkan mengenai wabak ini pada September 2012. SARS yang pernah menggemparkan dunia pada 2003 adalah satu daripada strain yang boleh menjangkiti manusia dan haiwan. MERS-CoV dan SARS adalah dua strain coronavirus yang berbeza di antara satu sama lain. Ketika ini beberapa negara di rantau Asia Barat melaporkan kes MERS-CoV dan negara berkenaan adalah Arab Saudi, Emiriah Arab Bersatu, Jordan, Qatar dan Tunisia, begitu juga beberapa negara dari rantau Eropah iaitu Itali, Jerman, Perancis dan United Kingdom.

Bagi kes dilaporkan dari Tunisia dan negara rantau Eropah, mereka sama ada mempunyai sejarah lawatan ke rantau Asia Barat atau sejarah kontrak dengan pelawat yang mempunyai gejala sejurus pulang dari lawatan ke Asia Barat,” katanya.

Menurut Dr. Nik Hazlina, jangkitan respiratori yang berlaku secara akut dan serius iaitu demam dan kesukaran bernafas adalah gejala utama yang dikesan dalam kes MERS-CoV.

Pesakit yang terkena jangkitan mengalami radang paru-paru. Ada juga sebahagian kes yang dikesan dengan gejala gastrointestinal seperti cirit-birit. Lebih membimbangkan, jika penyakit ini berjangkit kepada individu yang menghadapi penyakit kronik dan kurang daya tahan jangkitan kerana gejala jangkitan mungkin berlaku dalam bentuk tidak lazim.

Sejak kejadian MERS-CoV dikesan, aktiviti pemantauan dan pencegahan sewajarnya, termasuk pemantauan ke atas jemaah haji pada musim haji tahun lalu dilaksanakan Kementerian Kesihatan.

Sebagai persediaan bagi musim haji pada tahun ini, Kementerian Kesihatan berkerjasama Lembaga Tabung Haji (LTH) menjalankan pemantauan terhadap status kesihatan jemaah haji sebelum berlepas, sepanjang tempoh mereka berada di Tanah Suci dan selepas pulang ke tanah air.

“Pasukan Perubatan Haji yang bertugas di Tanah Suci dan jemaah haji yang bakal mengerjakan haji pada musim haji kali ini telah diberi pendidikan kesihatan berkaitan penyakit ini dan langkah pencegahan yang perlu diambil, di samping memberi penekanan mengenai penjagaan kesihatan diri,” ujarnya.

Buat masa ini, WHO tidak mengeluarkan nasihat perjalanan atau larangan lawatan ke negara terbabit. Bagaimanapun, khusus untuk orang awam yang ingin mengerjakan umrah, mengerjakan haji atau mengadakan lawatan ke negara di rantau Asia Barat yang kini ada kejadian jangkitan MERS-CoV, Kementerian Kesihatan memberi panduan berkaitan:

l Selalu mengamalkan tahap kebersihan diri yang tinggi seperti kerap mencuci tangan menggunakan air dan sabun atau bahan pencuci tangan terutama selepas batuk, bersih atau selepas bersalaman.

l Ketika dalam tempoh lawatan, sentiasa bawa bersama penutup mulut dan hidung serta bahan pencuci tangan, terutama selepas batuk, bersin atau selepas bersalaman.

l Ketika dalam tempoh lawatan, elak menjamah makanan mentah atau tidak dimasak dengan sepenuhnya, menjamah buahan mahupun sayuran yang tidak dibasuh terlebih dulu atau minum minuman menggunakan bekalan air tidak terawat.

l Mereka yang pulang dari lawatan ke negara di Asia Barat dengan gejala jangkitan respiratori (seperti demam, batuk, selesema dan sakit tekak) dinasihatkan memakai penutup mulut dan hidung. Jika gejala dialami berterusan dan menjadi bertambah teruk, segera dapatkan rawatan perubatan serta maklumkan mengenai sejarah perjalanan mereka kepada doktor yang merawat.

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