Baja Semula Jadi Untuk Tanah

Jika diajukan soalan mengenai kesihatan, pasti ramai mengakui inginkan hidup yang sihat. Namun berapa ramai di antara kita mula berubah ke arah pola hidup lebih teratur dan belajar untuk menguruskan tekanan dengan baik. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan memilih makanan yang betul dan berkhasiat seperti makanan organik.

Ada yang memberi definisi makanan organik adalah makanan segar tanpa bahan kimia dan racun serangga. Namun, banyak juga yang menganggap makanan jenis ini khusus untuk mereka yang tidak mementingkan rasa.

Menurut pakar pemakanan, Madhavi Rai, makanan organik adalah produk pertanian atau ternakan yang bebas daripada sebarang bahan kimia atau pencemaran ketika proses pengeluarannya.

Ini dapat dilihat menerusi teknik pertanian secara tradisional iaitu menggunakan tanah subur yang mempunyai cacing bagi tujuan menggemburkan tanah, menjaga serangan makhluk perosak tanpa menggunakan racun serangga dan bahan kimia serta jarak ladang sejauh 30 kilometer dari pembangunan dan jalan raya.

Makanan yang dilabel organik perlu patuh dengan peraturan organik serta dikawal ketat bermula dari segi penanaman dan tempoh pengeluarannya.

Dari segi variasi, produk organik sama seperti yang terdapat di pasar raya termasuk sayur-sayuran, daging, ikan dan produk tenusu tetapi dilabel sebagai 100 peratus organik. Produk makanan yang dilabel organik mesti mengandungi sekurang-kurangnya 95 peratus bahan-bahan organik.

“Walaupun baja kimia membantu mempercepatkan pertumbuhan, meningkatkan produktiviti seterusnya memberikan hasil yang lebih baik, namun ia tidak memberikan banyak manfaat kepada manusia. Produk hasil pertanian itu mungkin mengandungi air yang mempengaruhi rasa asli sayur-sayuran serta kualiti makanan,” katanya.

Ramai bertanya apakah kebaikan makanan organik berbanding komersial. Untuk memahami kebaikan makanan organik, seseorang perlu memahami proses penghasilannya. Produk organik pada dasarnya menggunakan baja semula jadi untuk tanah selain prosedur selamat yang memberi kebaikan kepada alam sekitar.

Kebiasaannya, pertanian organik mengambil masa lebih lama berbanding pertanian komersial. Sebagai contoh, penternakan lembu secara organik dimulai dengan pemberian makanan organik.

Makanan itu bebas daripada hormon pertumbuhan dan haiwan ternakan juga tidak perlu disuntik dengan hormon tambahan lain. Haiwan ternakan dibiarkan bebas di kawasan ragut yang luas.

“Jika lembu diternak di padang rumput organik, susu dan daging yang dihasilkan juga dikategorikan sebagai produk organik. Bagi mereka yang pernah merasai daging ayam kampung pasti berpendapat daging ayam itu lebih sedap berbanding daging ayam daripada penternakan komersial.

“Ini kerana menghasilkan produk makanan yang bebas bahan kimia dan hormon pertumbuhan yang boleh memudaratkan kesihatan memerlukan jangka masa panjang. Kandungan nutrien makanan organik sama dengan bukan organik. Apa yang membezakannya adalah pengguna menerima produk bebas racun perosak dan hormon tambahan,” katanya.

Oleh kerana terdapat perbezaan ketara dari segi penyediaan makanan organik, ia turut memberi kesan ke atas kesihatan pengguna. Mengambil sayur-sayuran organik mengurangkan risiko terdedah kepada racun perosak.

Selain itu, kajian menunjukkan sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan organik mengandungi lebih banyak fosforus kerana menggunakan kaedah tanaman yang tidak merosakkan.

“Dari segi rasa terdapat perbezaan ketara kerana makanan organik lebih sedap berbanding bukan organik. Sebagai contoh, bagi mereka yang gemar mengambil sayur-sayuran mentah atau dicelur seperti tomato dan lobak akan merasai kemanisan rasanya manakala sayur-sayuran hijau pula dikatakan kurang pahit. Hal ini berbeza dengan sayur-sayuran komersial yang mempunyai rasa pahit dan kurang kemanisan semula jadinya,” ujarnya.

Madhavi berkata, bagi mengekalkan nutrisi yang terdapat pada sayur-sayuran, pengambilan secara mentah adalah cara terbaik. Ini kerana individu tidak perlu bimbang mengenai pencemaran dan kesan negatif daripada bahan kimia digunakan.

Bagi mereka yang menghidap diabetes atau penyakit kardiovaskular, makanan organik memberi kesan positif kepada mereka. Kajian menunjukkan makanan organik mengandungi omega-3 yang tinggi, bagus untuk kesihatan dan menghindarkan penyakit berpunca daripada masalah jantung. Ia juga sesuai untuk penghidap kanser dan bagi yang memiliki ketidakseimbangan hormon.

“Saya percaya kesedaran kesihatan di Malaysia semakin bertambah dan ini sudah tentu meningkatkan pengetahuan individu mengenai produk makanan organik. Malah di pasar raya besar sekarang terdapat ruang khusus menjual produk organik, begitu juga dengan kedai menjual makanan organik yang semakin bertambah,” jelasnya.

Berbanding harga, makanan organik memang agak mahal kerana proses pengeluaran makanan organik lebih tinggi berbeza dengan pengeluaran makanan konvensional dan komersial. Ini kerana ia membabitkan kos pengeluaran yang banyak terutama dari segi penyediaan bahan serta tenaga buruh.

Perlu diingat proses pertumbuhan makanan organik mengambil masa yang lama kerana tiada hormon atau antibiotik diberikan kepada tanaman. Oleh itu, pengeluaran makanan organik bergantung semata-mata kepada bahan semula jadi serta pertumbuhan mengikut unsur alam.

“Oleh sebab pengeluaran makanan organik mengambil masa yang lama sebelum boleh dipasarkan dan pembabitan tenaga buruh yang ramai berbanding pertanian konvensional, jadi terdapat peningkatan kos sehingga menyebabkan produk menjadi sedikit mahal. Namun jika diikutkan, ia masih berbaloi dengan manfaat yang ditawarkannya,” jelasnya.

Bagi individu yang ingin memulakan langkah awal menukar pengambilan makanan kepada makanan organik atau menambah hidangan organik ke dalam diet harian, Madhavi mencadangkan supaya memulakannya dengan memilih buah-buahan berkulit nipis seperti epal, kiwi, plum serta sayur-sayuran yang boleh diambil secara mentah atau dimasak pada haba minimum. Kalau mampu, bolehlah membeli ayam dan daging organik.

“Ingat, makanan sihat harus bermula daripada bahan masakan yang berkhasiat dan segar. Anda tidak perlu keluar membeli produk organik saja, sebaliknya mengubah cara hidup dengan memilih sumber yang tepat dan menggunakan cara memasak yang sihat. Elakkan rantaian makanan segera kerana ia boleh menjejaskan tahap kesihatan anda,” katanya.

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