Diet Tersusun TDNA

Kegemukan atau obesiti adalah satu penyakit kronik yang menular dalam kalangan masyarakat dunia termasuk Malaysia.

Obesiti kini bukan hanya dikenal pasti sebagai faktor risiko penyakit kardiovaskular, malah ia turut membawa kesan buruk terhadap kesihatan dan menyumbang kepada penyakit serius seperti diabetes.

Statistik di Malaysia menerusi Daftar Diabetes Negara menunjukkan 80 peratus orang dewasa yang menghidap diabetes Jenis 2 dianggap mengalami obes, manakala 17 peratus orang dewasa mendapat penyakit kronik terbabit berpunca daripada obesiti.

Dalam satu kajian di Malaysia baru-baru ini dan diterbitkan dalam BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care menunjukkan pesakit diabetes Jenis 2 yang mengalami obesiti berjaya mengurangkan berat badan secara ketara dan mengawal paras gula secara lebih baik dengan pelan makanan tersusun sebagai sebahagian terapi pemakanan perubatan.

Pelan pengurusan diabetes berkenaan mengambil kira budaya pesakit seperti diet tempatan dan tabiat makan yang boleh membantu mereka mencapai matlamat kesihatan termasuk menurunkan berat badan dan paras gula darah (paras A1C).

Hasil kajian itu juga menunjukkan satu-satu pengurusan diabetes Jenis 2 tidak semestinya sesuai untuk semua pesakit. Baik sajian makanan kegemaran keluarga mahupun aspek genetik seseorang, faktor budaya juga memainkan peranan dalam menentukan cara makan dan kesannya ke atas kesihatan.

Oleh itu, sekumpulan penyelidik pakar tempatan dan luar negara diketuai Dekan Sains Kesihatan, Universiti Perubatan Antarabangsa (IMU) Kuala Lumpur, Profesor Dr Winnie Chee, mencipta satu algoritma dinamakan dalam komuniti perubatan sebagai algoritma pemakanan khusus diabetes silang budaya atau singkatannya tDNA.

Ia merangkumi pelan makanan berkalori rendah yang tersusun, penggantian makanan khusus untuk diabetes dan usaha meningkatkan aktiviti fizikal. Kajian itu disokong pengeluar susu formula bereputasi, Abbott, membabitkan pemantauan ke atas 230 pesakit diabetes Jenis 2 dengan matlamat untuk memahami kesan algoritma pemakanan ke atas kesihatan mereka.

Menurut Dr Winnie, dalam kajian itu satu kumpulan menerima diet tersusun berdasarkan tDNA termasuk pelan menu harian, penggunaan formula khusus untuk diabetes sebagai penggantian makanan, kaunseling motivasi dan peningkatan aktiviti fizikal.

Satu kumpulan lagi menerima pelan makanan berkalori rendah yang serupa, menggunakan makanan biasa dan senaman yang sama banyak serta perundingan diet biasa.

Penyelidik mendapati bahawa kumpulan yang menerima pelan diet dan gaya hidup tersusun mengalami penurunan berat badan lebih besar dengan purata 5.8 kilogram (kg), penurunan indeks jisim badan (BMI) sebanyak tiga peratus dan pengurangan lemak badan serta ukur lilit pinggang dalam masa lebih enam bulan.

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