Diet Zaman Batu?

SEMASA berkunjung ke China dan Vietnam hati terdetik melihat rakyat di situ yang rata-rata mempunyai berat badan ideal. Mereka tidak terlalu gemuk dan tidak terlalu kurus.

Apabila berjumpa dengan beberapa doktor di kedua-dua negara, mereka mengesahkan kadar obesiti di sana sangat rendah.

Saya terpanggil untuk meneliti dengan lebih terperinci corak pemakanan yang diamalkan sehingga membolehkan sistem hormon metabolik di dalam dalam tubuh mereka berfungsi dengan begitu baik sekali.

Saya dan Dr. Muzvin yang mengendalikan klinik Isahak di kompleks PKNS Shah Alam terpanggil ke Vietnam sekali lagi dua minggu lalu. Kami membuat suatu eksperimen dengan mengambil makanan Vietnam selama beberapa hari. Kami ingin merasai sendiri budaya makan di sana agar dapat mengubah corak pemakanan ke arah yang lebih baik serta menghebahkan kepada keluarga dan para pembaca yang saya sayangi.

Sarapan pagi masyarakat Vietnam adalah semangkuk ulam (lebih kurang segenggam) dan sup bihun. Cuma sedikit bihun dimasukkan dan ditambah cendawan serta sayur-sayur yang direbus sekejap. Sup sayuran itu dibuat tanpa menggunakan minyak. Masyarakat Vietnam yang beragama Islam memelihara sendiri ayam dan ternakan lain dan memastikan haiwan itu turut memakan sayur-sayuran serta rumput yang segar.

Selain sup, popia berintikan sayur-sayuran turut dihidangkan semasa sarapan. Sayur-sayuran itu dimakan mentah. Hidangan tengah hari juga merupakan sesuatu yang unik bagi kami. Menu di semua restorannya menawarkan sayur-sayuran jauh lebih banyak berbanding ikan, ayam dan daging. Kami menjeling beberapa wanita Vietnam yang sedang menikmati makanan tengah hari. Mereka makan tiga jenis sayuran dan satu jenis lauk sahaja iaitu ikan goreng. Nasi pula hanya setengah genggam.

Di Vietnam kami tidak berjumpa keropok atau makanan segera yang berperisa. Di mana-mana rakyat mereka mengunyah buah-buahan segar atau jeruk buah-buahan. Mereka turut memakan umbut dan kacang namun kami tidak berjumpa kentang dan juga ubi keledek.

Kesimpulannya, mereka tidak mengamalkan karbohidrat yang banyak. Mereka juga tahu bahawa makanan yang perlu dimasak sampai empuk mempunyai sejenis toksin yang merosakkan tubuh badan.

Di dalam diet kita sehari harian, karbohidrat merupakan komponen terbesar. Di sebelah pagi kita dihidangkan dengan nasi lemak, nasi goreng, nasi dagang dan pelbagai jenis nasi, mi serta roti. Makanan berasaskan gandum mengandungi karbohidrat hampir seratus peratus.

Karbohidrat merupakan salah satu gizi makanan yang mustahak untuk menghasilkan tenaga di dalam tubuh kita. Dalam kesihatan moden, karbohidrat boleh dikategorikan sebagai karbohidrat baik dan karbohidrat tidak baik.

Secara asasnya, semua karbohidrat merupakan bahan berstruktur gula. Jenis karbohidrat dikelaskan mengikut bilangan gula di dalamnya iaitu:

Monosakarida: 1 unit gula seperti glukosa dan fruktosa

Dissakarida: 2 unit gula seperti sukrosa dan laktosa

Oligosakarida dan polisakarida: Banyak unit gula seperti glikogen, kanji dan sellulosa

Secara umumnya, jenis jenis makanan yang mengandungi karbohidrat sihat adalah buah-buahan, kekacang, sayur sayuran.

Walaupun buah-buahan merupakan sumber karbohidrat yang sihat, namun begitu tidak semua buah-buahan adalah sama. Buah buahan yang mengandungi kandungan gula yang rendah seperti nangka atau lemon adalah lebih baik berbanding buah yang mengandungi gula yang tinggi seperti mangga dan pisang.

Buah buahan yang mengandungi gula yang tinggi menyebabkan paras gula meningkat dengan cepat di dalam darah apabila dimakan. Keadaan ini akan merencat penghasilan hormon yang perlu untuk anti-penuaan dan kesihatan seperti kortisol , growth hormone, testosterone, estradiol, DHEA dan androstenedione.

Peningkatan gula yang tinggi akan merangsang penghasilan hormon insulin di mana insulin akan menukar gula kepada lemak di dalam badan.

Lemak yang dikandung badan akan digunakan semula sebagai tenaga. Proses penukaran lemak kepada tenaga berlaku di mitokondria iaitu kilang tenaga dalam badan. Bagi membolehkan proses ini berlaku, kita memerlukan sistem hormon yang baik. Hormon metabolik perlu berinteraksi dengan enzim bagi membolehkan protein menjana tenaga daripada lemak.

Hormon adalah molekul aktif terbina daripada protein yang dikeluarkan oleh kilang-kilang hormon di seluruh tubuh kita. Otak kita mengeluarkan banyak jenis hormon yang mengawal metabolisme, pembesaran, daya ingatan dan jantung. Malah tidur juga dipengaruhi oleh hormon. Ini bermakna gejala insomnia juga disebabkan hormon yang tidak cukup.

Masalah hormon tidak cukup menjadi persoalan yang amat menarik. Besar kemungkinan faktor makanan kita yang sering ditambah agen pengawet menyebabkan kerosakan pada sistem hormon kita.

Kadar peningkatan gejala diabetes dan jantung membuktikan kepada kita bahawa kerosakan hormon merupakan fenomena moden yang perlu ditangani segera. Begitu juga peningkatan kadar obesiti yang merupakan masalah seluruh dunia. Mereka yang obes bukanlah seratus peratus disebabkan makan banyak. Masalah ini berpunca daripada kerosakan hormon dan menjadi kitaran obesiti yang menakutkan. Kita harus mengkaji amalan pemakanan di negara yang belum tercemar dengan budaya pemakanan dari barat. Kita harus mencontohi cara pemakanan yang sebegitu.

Toksin di dalam karbohidrat merosakkan kesihatan kita sekali gus menjadikan kita lemah, lesu, cepat tua dan diserang pelbagai penyakit.

Makanan yang terbaik adalah makanan yang tidak perlu dimasak lama. Tiada toksin di dalamnya yang perlu dibuang melalui pemanasan. Seandainya makanan itu perlu dimasak lama sebelum boleh dimakan itu bermakna makanan tersebut mempunyai toksin yang banyak. Kalau dimakan mentah akan memudarat dan mendatangkan penyakit. Saya memberi contoh kentang, nasi dan ubi yang tidak boleh dimakan mentah. Ikan dan daging lebih cepat masak berbanding nasi. Cuba anda fikirkan yang manakah yang lebih selamat dimakan. Di zaman batu (paleolithic) manusia sangat kuat tegap dan sihat dengan amalan makanan yang kurang dimasak. Diet paleolithic menjadi satu isu yang menarik untuk dikaji.

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