Elak Buah Pinggang Rosak

Dua minggu lalu, seorang pesakit buah pinggang, Lawrence Breakly, 62, menjadi orang pertama menerima pembuluh darah tiruan untuk proses dialisis dalam satu prosedur perubatan selama dua jam di Hospital Universiti Duke, North Carolina, Amerika Syarikat.

Pembuluh darah tiruan itu dihasilkan pasukan pengkaji universiti berkenaan menggunakan sel darah manusia yang ‘dihidupkan’ dalam peranti berbentuk tabung di makmal.

Menurut pakar bedah prosedur terbabit, Dr Jeffrey H Lawson, ujian klinikal mendapati pembuluh darah tiruan itu berfungsi lebih baik berbanding pembuluh darah sintetik atau pembuluh darah daripada haiwan.

Sebelum ini, doktor menggunakan pembuluh darah sintetik untuk prosedur hemodialisis, tetapi ia kerap menyebabkan darah bergumpal.

Tambahnya, beberapa ujian lanjut masih dilakukan oleh Universiti Duke dan jika lulus, pembuluh darah tiruan ini akan menjadi kaedah paling berkesan kepada jutaan pesakit buah pinggang yang terpaksa melakukan proses dialisis secara rutin.

Membaca kisah ini membuatkan penulis terfikir sampai begini sekali usaha membantu pesakit buah pinggang yang perlu melalui proses dialisis supaya mereka dapat menjalani rawatan berkenaan dengan lebih baik.

Sekiranya kita menjaga buah pinggang dengan baik sejak muda, mungkin rawatan sedemikian tidak perlu ditempuh.

Menjejakkan kaki ke bilik rawatan dialisis Pusat Perubatan Sunway bersama Terapi Rehabilitasi Sukan pusat berkenaan, Muhammad Ghazali Abdul Jalil, sudah cukup membuatkan penulis hiba kerana tidak sampai hati melihat ramai warga emas terlantar di atas katil sambil melakukan proses dialisis.

Keadaan itu juga sedikit sebanyak memberi keinsafan kepada penulis supaya lebih menghargai organ penting yang menjadi kilang penapis darah ini, apatah lagi selepas melihat kepayahan mereka.

Perunding Pemakanan Pusat Perubatan Sunway, Ng Yee Voon berkata, kerosakan buah pinggang berlaku secara perlahan-lahan tanpa disedari.

Oleh kerana kehadirannya jarang disedari, tiada langkah diambil untuk memperlahankan proses ini sehinggalah keupayaan buah pinggang seseorang untuk menapis darah hanya tinggal 10 hingga 15 peratus.

“Beberapa gejala penyakit buah pinggang yang harus diberi perhatian termasuk berat badan menurun tanpa sebab, rasa loya atau muntah, letih, lesu atau sakit belakang.

“Tanda lain termasuk penukaran kekerapan atau corak pembuangan air kencing, air kencing yang mengandungi darah atau rasa pedih ketika membuang air kencing, bengkak pada muka, kaki dan abdomen serta kesukaran untuk tidur malam.

“Malangnya, semua gejala ini kebiasaannya tidak akan kelihatan sehinggalah buah pinggang mengalami kerosakan yang teruk. Ada juga kemungkinan anda langsung tidak akan mengalami sebarang tanda berkenaan walaupun buah pinggang sudah tidak berfungsi lagi.

“Oleh sebab itu, anda tidak boleh bergantung kepada semua gejala dinyatakan untuk mengesan penyakit buah pinggang dan menganggap anda tidak mempunyai penyakit itu jika langsung tidak mengalaminya,” katanya.

Langkah pertama penjagaan penyakit buah pinggang yang lebih berkesan adalah dengan mengesan penyakit ini pada peringkat awal.

Ia amat penting terutama jika individu itu seorang penghidap diabetes kerana penyakit ini akan menyebabkan mereka berisiko tinggi menghidap penyakit buah pinggang.

Buah pinggang adalah kilang penapis yang bekerja sepanjang masa. Ia menapis kira-kira 200 liter darah sehari untuk menyingkir bahan buangan dan air berlebihan daripada badan menerusi air kencing.

Selain itu, buah pinggang mengawal jumlah cecair dan elektrolit dalam badan, mengawal tekanan darah, membantu penghasilan sel darah merah dengan mengeluarkan hormon eritropoietin yang penting dalam proses pembentukan darah dan mengekalkan kesihatan tulang dengan mengawal tahap kalsium serta fosforus dalam darah.

Justeru, kawalan makan sangat penting supaya buah pinggang mampu bertahan lama. Jika tidak, ia akan rosak terus dan perlu menjalani rawatan dialisis untuk meneruskan hidup.

Walaupun tahu betapa mustahaknya buah pinggang, ramai kurang sedar penyakit membabitkan organ ini sebenarnya sangat membebankan. Mungkin inilah sebabnya masih ramai yang berat hati hendak mengamalkan gaya hidup aktif meskipun sudah berulang kali dimaklumkan aktiviti fizikal sangat penting untuk mengawal penyakit.

Pengambilan makanan mengikut selera dan jarang bersenam sebenarnya boleh mempercepatkan proses kerosakan buah pinggang yang gejala kerosakannya tidak disedari.

Biasanya gejala hanya akan muncul apabila fungsi buah pinggang kurang daripada 30 peratus. Apabila disebut fungsi atau keupayaan buah pinggang bekerja, ia membabitkan kedua-dua buah pinggang.

“Untuk pesakit buah pinggang, mereka perlu mengambil protein, kalori, cecair, vitamin dan mineral yang mencukupi untuk mendapatkan tenaga diperlukan sepanjang hari.

“Ini kerana pesakit akan kehilangan protein ketika melakukan dialisis dan keperluan mereka berbeza dengan pesakit buah pinggang kronik. Sumber protein dan kalori penting untuk membina dan memperbaiki tisu dan menentang jangkitan selain menyingkirkan bahan tidak perlu pada tubuh.

“Jangan merokok kerana ia boleh memberi kesan langsung kepada buah pinggang. Jika buah pinggang sudah rosak, berhenti merokok tidak banyak membantu untuk memperbaiki fungsi buah pinggang,” katanya.

Sekiranya menghidap kencing manis, berusaha sedaya mungkin untuk mengawal paras gula darah dengan menjaga pemakanan, mengambil ubat dan paling penting, bersenam.

Lebih 50 peratus pesakit yang menjalani rawatan dialisis menghidap kencing manis. Kerosakan buah pinggang akibat kencing manis boleh dicegah jika dikesan awal. Pakar perubatan menganggarkan kebanyakan kes kencing manis dikesan selepas hampir 10 tahun penyakit itu bersarang dalam badan.

Sentiasa memastikan paras kolesterol terkawal dan paling utama, kurangkan pengambilan garam. Cuba sasarkan kurang daripada 1,500 miligram sehari. Ini boleh dilakukan dengan mengehadkan penggunaan garam dalam masakan serta mengurangkan makanan masin.

Pilih makanan yang baik untuk jantung seperti buah-buahan segar, sayur beku atau segar, makanan bijirin penuh dan produk tenusu rendah lemak.

Selain pesakit, keluarga juga memainkan peranan penting menyediakan resipi yang masih mengekalkan kelazatan dan ciri-ciri diperlukan untuk menjana kesihatan holistik.

Bermula 10 hingga 14 Jun lalu, Pusat Perubatan Sunway menganjurkan Minggu Nutrisi 2013 dengan tema Kesihatan dan Kesejahteraan Buah Pinggang.

Pelbagai aktiviti berfaedah dijalankan antaranya ujian darah percuma dan pameran kesihatan.

Bengkel diet rendah protein juga akan diadakan pada 29 Jun ini untuk pesakit dan ahli keluarga mereka di Pusat Konvensyen Swan, Pusat Perubatan Sunway.Untuk maklumat lanjut, hubungi Jabatan Dietetik dan Nutrisi pusat perubatan berkenaan di 03-74919191.

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