Endometriosis Ganggu Kehamilan

Selepas sembilan tahun berjuang melawan endometriosis iaitu penyakit berkaitan rahim yang menyebabkan keguguran, seorang pensyarah, Penny Lim akhirnya berjaya hamil dan melahirkan seorang bayi lelaki yang sihat pada 2014. Berusia 41 tahun, Penny didiagnosis menghidap endometriosis pada 2005 tahun yang sama beliau berkahwin.

Enam tahun bergelar isteri, beliau mengalami tiga keguguran termasuk hamil di luar rahim. Semua kehamilannya hanya bertahan selama tujuh minggu sebelum gugur.

“Sebelum melakukan pemeriksaan doktor saya tidak pernah mendengar mengenai endometriosis sehingga disahkan menghidap penyakit ini. Antara tanda-tanda endometriosis yang saya alami seperti senggugut yang teruk dan kesakitan pada bawah perut dan pinggang setiap kali datang haid.

“Namun, saya menganggapnya sebagai kesakitan biasa yang dialami wanita setiap kali datang haid. Malah, ubatan yang diambil juga hanya merawat sakit biasa berkenaan kerana saya memikirkan ia bukan sesuatu yang serius dan wajar dipeduli,” katanya.

Katanya, beliau menjalani tiga pembedahan laparoskopi untuk membuang implan endometriosis atau selaput endometrium yang tumbuh di luar rahim mengakibatkan kesakitan dan ketidaksuburan.

“Selepas keguguran kali ketiga, saya sekali lagi menjalani pembedahan laparoskopi. Syukur selepas pembedahan berkenaan saya hamil sekali lagi dan kehamilan itu bertahan selama sembilan bulan sebelum melahirkan anak secara pembedahan caesarean.

“Oleh itu, nasihat saya kepada wanita yang senasib supaya mengamalkan gaya hidup sihat dan bebas tekanan kerana pesakit endometriosis perlu kekal sihat dan ceria agar tidak memburukkan lagi keadaan. Penting juga untuk sentiasa berdoa kepada Tuhan agar diberikan kekuatan dan jangan putus asa untuk hamil kerana sentiasa ada cara untuk kita berubat,” katanya.

Endometriosis adalah lapisan dalaman rahim yang dikenali sebagai endometrium tumbuh di luar rahim seperti di kawasan ovari, pundi kencing, usus dan pelvis. Selaput endometrium yang tumbuh di luar rahim juga dipanggil implan dan dalam kes tertentu ia boleh tumbuh pada kulit, paru-paru dan otak.

Memandangkan implan ini terbentuk di luar rahim, ia mengalami kesukaran keluar daripada badan sewaktu haid dan menyebabkan kesakitan. Lama-kelamaan, darah akan berkumpul dan membentuk sista serta menyebabkan perekatan yang menyukarkan kehamilan.

Menurut Penasihat Pusat Endometriosis Boston di Massachusetts, Amerika Syarikat, Dr Pamela Stratton, sistem imun wanita dengan endometriosis tidak mampu mengeluarkan implan terbabit sehingga ia membesar dan mengganggu hormon reproduktif.

“Implan itu sensitif terhadap hormon estrogen yang menyebabkan tubuh melancarkan tindak balas keradangan yang berpanjangan dan menyebabkan pembentukan tisu parut.

“Statistik global menunjukkan kira-kira 176 juta wanita seluruh dunia menderita endometriosis dan penyakit ini menyebabkan kehidupan harian penghidapnya terjejas akibat menanggung kesakitan. Simptom ditunjukkan seperti senggugut teruk, pendarahan teruk, letih, kesakitan ketika atau selepas hubungan seks.

“Kadar ketidaksuburan wanita juga terjejas antara 30 hingga 50 peratus menyebabkan penghidapnya sukar hamil dengan cara biasa. Endometriosis juga dikenal pasti sebagai satu daripada tiga punca ketidaksuburan dalam kalangan wanita,” katanya.

Kemurungan juga timbul akibat kegagalan untuk hamil dan simptom ini sering terlepas pandang. Bagi wanita yang berjaya hamil walaupun mengalami endometriosis, mereka juga mengalami banyak kepayahan apabila kandungan gugur atau hamil di luar rahim.

Mereka juga berisiko mengalami komplikasi di penghujung kehamilan seperti saluran rahim tersumbat dengan plasenta yang boleh menjejaskan kelahiran, pendarahan dan kandungan pramatang.

Pakar masih belum mengetahui kaitan endometriosis dengan ketidaksuburan, tetapi kajian mendapati kemungkinan pembentukan tisu parut mengubah bentuk dan fungsi ovari, tiub Fallopio dan rahim. Kemungkinan lain, tisu yang tumbuh di luar rahim menyebabkan perubahan hormon dan kimia dalam cecair di sekitar organ dalam abdomen dan keadaan ini mengubah kitaran haid dan menghalang kehamilan.

Endometriosis kadangkala sukar untuk didiagnosis berikutan simptomnya juga menyerupai sakit puan yang lain, malah sering juga disalah anggap sebagai sindrom prahaid (PMS) atau senggugut teruk. Oleh itu, penghidapnya mengambil masa bertahun-tahun untuk didiagnosis dengan tepat penyakit terbabit dengan tempoh sekurang-kurangnya tujuh tahun setengah bermula simptom dikesan.

Kaedah diagnosis dan pembedahan dilakukan secara laparoskopi serta penyakit ini juga dibahagikan kepada empat peringkat

bagi menunjukkan tahap ringan, sederhana ke teruk. Sehingga kini, endometriosis tidak boleh disembuhkan tetapi ada rawatan untuk melegakan simptom dan membantu penghidapnya menjalani hidup lebih berkualiti.

Pilihan rawatan termasuk terapi hormon untuk mengawal pembentukan selaput endometrium dan pembedahan histerektomi bagi membuang rahim. Rawatan ubatan juga berkesan bagi menangani penyakit ini dan penghidapnya boleh mengambil suntikan atau tablet.

Sementara itu, Pengarah Urusan Bayer Co (M) Sdn Bhd, Manoj Saxena berkata, pihaknya komited untuk menambah baik kehidupan wanita dengan memenuhi kehendak kesihatan mereka sejak syarikat farmaseutikal itu diasaskan lebih 80 tahun lalu.

“Endometriosis adalah penyakit yang tidak saja mendatangkan kesakitan malah melemahkan kaum Hawa. Pihak kami berharap dapat membantu lebih ramai penghidapnya menguruskan penyakit mereka dengan lebih baik dan berupaya menikmati seluruh kehidupan menerusi inovasi perubatan dijalankan kumpulan penyelidik kami,” katanya.

Endometriosis menjejaskan kehidupan penghidapnya, namun ia boleh dirawat dan diuruskan dengan berkesan. Rawatan sepanjang hayat, pencegahan berulang dan perancangan keluarga boleh dicapai menerusi diagnosis yang tepat dan peringkat penyakit.

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