Golongan Berisiko Perlu Waspada

Batuk dan bersin saling berselang-seli. Bagaikan bersaing sesama sendiri, sana sini kedengaran individu yang batuk dengan kuat, disulami bersin, malah tidak kurang yang menarik hingus dek terkena selesema.

Pergilah ke mana-mana pun, pasar raya mahupun pejabat, ia seakan perkara biasa sejak akhir-akhir ini dan jerebu dijadikan punca utama masalah itu.

Menurut pakar alam sekitar, jerebu adalah satu fenomena yang menyaksikan debu, asap dan partikel kering yang lain termasuk habuk berkumpul sehingga menjadi langit mendung.

Ramai yang mengeluh kerana munculnya jerebu turut membawa cuaca panas dan kering berpanjangan.

Kes demam, batuk, selesema, sakit kepala dan asma atau lelah mencatat rekod tinggi hampir setiap hari tapi dalam masa sama masih ramai yang memandang enteng dalam mengatasi atau mencegahnya.

Menurut Pakar Perunding Perubatan Dalaman dan Dada di Pusat Perubatan Tropicana, Dr Mohammed Fauzi Abdul Rani, jerebu iaitu fenomena atmosfera dipenuhi debu, habuk, asap serta pelbagai partikel lain, tidak boleh dipandang remeh kerana boleh menyebabkan masalah kesihatan yang lebih memudaratkan jika terdedah dalam tempoh lama.

“Impak negatif jerebu pada kita bukan semata-mata pada hidung, kerongkong, saluran pernafasan dan mata, malah menyebabkan alahan atau kerengsaan pada kulit.

“Bersin, hidung berair, mata merah dan tekak kering adalah antara kesan daripada jerebu tapi biasanya ia tidak begitu memudaratkan atau memberi kesan jangka panjang.

“Simptom ini akan hilang apabila kualiti udara bertambah baik. Tapi golongan yang mempunyai masalah kesihatan seperti paru-paru dan lelah termasuk dalam kalangan berisiko tinggi.

“Golongan ini akan mengalami kesan masalah kesihatan yang lebih buruk kerana partikel halus dalam jerebu membuatkan mereka sukar bernafas, batuk tanpa henti dan paru-paru mula menunjukkan tanda lelah seperti bunyi nafas yang berdehit. Golongan berisiko tinggi ini mesti segera dapatkan bantuan kesihatan apabila munculnya salah satu simptom itu,” katanya.

Dalam masa sama, golongan berisiko ini juga tidak digalakkan berhenti mengambil ubat walaupun berasakan diri cukup sihat dan tidak terjejas dengan jerebu.

“Mereka yang mempunyai masalah jantung dan lelah sebaiknya tidak menghentikan pengambilan ubat kerana risikonya tinggi. Jerebu menyebabkan paru-paru kita sempit, justeru golongan berisiko ini boleh mengalami masalah sakit dada dan sesak nafas.

“Sebaiknya bersiap sedia dengan ubat dan hanya boleh berhenti mengambilnya atas nasihat doktor,” ujarnya.

Pengambilan suplemen atau makanan tambahan umumnya ketika jerebu pula tidak perlu kecuali atas masalah kesihatan lain.

“Tidak perlu ambil suplemen semata-mata untuk rasa lebih sihat ketika jerebu ini. Yang penting jaga pemakanan dan minum air secukupnya,” katanya.

Lebih sensitif

Selain itu, golongan kanak-kanak dan warga emas juga lebih sensitif dengan kesan jerebu berikutan sistem imunisasi badan yang tidak cukup kuat seperti golongan dewasa yang sihat, sekali gus menyebabkan mereka mudah dijangkiti penyakit.

“Habuk dan debu jerebu yang melekat pada kulit mereka boleh menyebabkan masalah kegatalan serta memasuki serta menyerang saluran pernafasan.

“Kulit kanak-kanak dan warga emas ini sememangnya lebih sensitif berbanding golongan muda dewasa, justeru mereka perlu minum air mencukupi dan mandi setiap kali selesai melakukan aktiviti di luar rumah.

“Pemakaian topeng muka amat penting, bukan saja kepada kanak-kanak dan warga emas, malah semua kumpulan usia yang berdepan dengan masalah jerebu ini.

“Topeng muka paling sesuai ialah jenis N95 kerana ia berupaya membantu mengekang kemasukan partikel halus ke dalam rongga terbuka seperti hidung dan mulut.

“Topeng surgikal biasa atau topeng fesyen yang diperbuat daripada kain tidak begitu efektif dalam menapis partikel jerebu tapi boleh juga digunakan sebagai perlindungan am. Itu lebih baik daripada tidak memakainya langsung,” tegasnya.

Tiada kaitan barah

Ada dakwaan mengatakan bahawa jerebu boleh menyebabkan kesan jangka panjang kepada paru-paru dan kerongkong hingga mengakibatkan berlakunya barah.

Tambah Dr Fauzi, tiada bukti yang menunjukkan jerebu boleh menyebabkan perkara itu kecuali individu terbabit sememangnya berdepan masalah kesihatan sebelum berlakunya jerebu.

“Setakat ini tiada bukti bahawa jerebu menyebabkan barah sama ada barah paru-paru, kerongkong atau radang pada paru-paru. Tiada kajian yang menunjukkan wujudnya kesan jangka panjang disebabkan jerebu.

“Ia lebih kepada efek jangka pendek dan sederhana, lazimnya tertumpu kepada golongan berisiko iaitu yang mengalami lelah, penyakit jantung serta alahan khususnya pada kulit,” katanya.

Begitu juga kesannya pada wanita hamil. Dakwaan mengatakan jerebu boleh menjejaskan janin dalam kandungan sama sekali tidak tepat kerana kesan jerebu bersifat sementara.

“Kesan pada wanita hamil sama seperti individu yang tidak hamil. Cuma apabila wanita hamil terbabit mempunyai masalah lelah atau jantung, barulah pemantauan dilakukan ke atasnya.

“Secara amnya, jerebu tidak mendatangkan risiko tambahan kepada wanita hamil dan bayi dalam kandungannya,” jelas Dr Fauzi.

Tip ketika jerebu

- Minum air kosong lebih banyak daripada biasa (melebihi satu liter).

- Makan secara berkala dan bukan dalam jumlah yang banyak sekali gus. Ini dapat elakkan rasa panas pada tubuh.

- Lebihkan sayuran dan buah-buahan dalam hidangan.

- Basuh mata dengan air apabila mula rasa tidak selesa atau mata menjadi merah.

- Elakkan pemakaian kanta lekap ketika jerebu kerana hanya akan memburukkan keadaan pada mata.

- Jika perlu, titiskan mata dengan larutan salina (saline) atau titisan mata berasaskan air.

- Sentiasa pakai topeng muka ketika keluar rumah atau bangunan.

- Kurangkan aktiviti di luar rumah atau bangunan.

- Penggunaan bahan neutral udara boleh membantu memperbaiki kualiti udara di dalam rumah.

- Tutup pintu dan tingkap bagi mengelakkan partikel mudah masuk ke dalam rumah.

- Tidak melakukan pembakaran terbuka. Sebaiknya kitar semula barangan yang tidak diperlukan berbanding membakarnya.

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