Haba Terhasil Lebih Daripada Kesan Penyejukan

Malaysia mengalami pemanasan global atau fenomena ekuinoks dua kali setiap tahun, iaitu pada Mac dan September. Ketika itu matahari akan berada tepat di atas garisan khatulistiwa dengan suhu paling panas terutama pada 12 tengah hari hingga 3 petang.

Apabila badan manusia terdedah pada cuaca panas yang terlampau bagi jangka masa yang lama, sistem badan akan gagal berfungsi menyebabkan suhu badan tidak terkawal.

Dalam sistem badan manusia ada pusat kawalan suhu badan yang mana suhu badan manusia dikekalkan antara 36 hingga 37.2 darjah Celsius bagi melindungi tisu badan. Keadaan ini menyebabkan kita mudah terdedah pada strok haba (heat stroke).

Strok haba atau ‘sun stroke’ ialah keadaan apabila suhu badan yang tinggi melampau melebihi 40.5 Celsius hingga mengakibatkan komplikasi kepada sistem saraf otak yang boleh menyebabkan seseorang itu koma seterusnya membawa maut.

Pegawai Perubatan Hospital Canselor Tuanku Mukhriz (HCTM), Pusat Perubatan UKM (PPUKM), Dr Noriani Daud berkata keadaan ini berpunca daripada pendedahan berpanjangan terhadap cuaca dan suhu panas melampau dan dehidrasi badan.

“Di Malaysia, gejala ini membimbangkan kerana Malaysia kini mengalami suhu panas yang melampau dan kering di mana kebanyakan kawasan boleh mencecah kepanasan suhu 38 Celsius hingga setinggi 44 Celsius.

“Ia berlaku disebabkan sistem thermoregulator badan akan membantu menurunkan suhu melalui proses berpeluh manakala penyejatan peluh memudahkan penyejukan badan. Dalam suhu yang ekstrem, haba yang dihasilkan melebihi kesan penyejukan penyejatan peluh.

“Kesannya menyebabkan suhu badan meningkat membawa kepada penyahidratan yang teruk, tekanan darah rendah, pelbagai kerosakan organ dalaman yang akhirnya boleh menyebabkan kematian,” katanya kepada Metro Ahad.

Menurutnya, antara tanda awal seseorang itu mendapat strok haba adalah sakit kepala dan berdenyut, mual dan muntah, sesak nafas, kurang berpeluh walau cuaca panas, lemah otot badan, kulit kering dan kemerahan, pengsan, sawan serta koma.

“Ada dua jenis strok haba iaitu exertional dan klasik. Strok haba exertional lazimnya berlaku kepada individu yang gemar melakukan aktiviti bersukan atau bersenam yang keterlaluan dalam keadaan suhu yang tinggi.

“Ini berlaku dalam kalangan ahli sukan dan golongan muda. Strok haba klasik pula berlaku dalam kalangan individu yang lebih berumur serta terdedah kepada suhu melampau di samping individu yang mengambil alkohol berlebihan,” katanya.

Strok haba adalah keadaan lebih serius jika dibanding dengan kelesuan haba. Kelesuan haba berlaku apabila seseorang itu mengalami keletihan melampau, kesan daripada pengurangan tekanan darah dan jumlah darah.

Ia disebabkan oleh kehilangan cecair tubuh dan garam selepas terdedah pada haba pada suatu jangka masa yang panjang. Kadangkala mereka mengalami kelesuan haba akan berasa tidak sihat, pengsan dan berpeluh dengan banyak.

Ia berlaku apabila suhu badan menjadi tinggi dan berbahaya berikutan pendedahan terhadap haba secara berlebihan. Tubuh tidak lagi mampu untuk menyejukkan diri dan mula ke tahap kepanasan melampau.

Mereka yang menghidap kelesuan haba perlu dipindahkan ke kawasan yang sejuk dan diberikan cecair terutama air kosong untuk diminum. Selepas perkara ini dilakukan, mereka akan berasa lebih baik dalam masa setengah jam. Mereka juga terhindar daripada mengalami komplikasi pada masa akan datang. Namun begitu, tanpa rawatan mereka akan mendapat strok haba.

Gejala kelesuan haba

- Kulit yang sangat panas dan kemerah-merahan

- Berpeluh dengan banyak

- Pening

- Keletihan melampau

- Loya

- Degupan jantung yang cepat

- Kurang buang air

- Kencing lebih pekat daripada biasa

Gejala strok haba

- Suhu tinggi lebih 40 Celsius

- Dehidrasi

- Degupan jantung yang pantas.

- Pernafasan yang cepat

- Kejang otot

- Kekeliruan

- Kurang memberi tumpuan

- Serangan sawan

- Sakit kepala

- Resah

- Halusinasi

- Pengsan

Nasihat Kementerian Kesihatan

- Menangguhkan atau mengehadkan aktiviti lasak seperti berkayak, berbasikal, maraton, memanjat gunung dan lain-lain aktiviti ketika berlaku gelombang haba ini sehinggalah keadaan kembali reda.

- Jika tidak dapat dielakkan, pakai topi atau payung yang boleh melindungi diri daripada terlalu terdedah dengan cuaca panas.

- Minum air secukupnya dan minumlah air yang sudah dimasak.

- Pakai pakaian yang ringan, cerah dan elakkan pakaian berwarna gelap, tebal dan ketat.

- Seboleh-bolehnya berada di dalam rumah atau bangunan. Tinggallah dalam rumah yang mempunyai pengudaraan yang cukup atau kelengkapan penyaman udara sekiranya mampu.

- Tidak duduk di dalam kenderaan yang bertutup tanpa penyaman udara.

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