Hormon Untuk Pertahan Tulang

Apabila bapa mertua saya mengalami kemalangan di rumah, kami semua berasa risau. Bapa mertua saya berusia 80 tahun. Beliau ialah seorang lelaki yang tegap dan kacak meskipun sudah lanjut usia.

Kesihatan bapa mertua saya sangat baik sekali. Beliau tidak ada penyakit jantung mahupun kencing manis. Tubuhnya sederhana, tidak terlalu gemuk atau kurus kerana amalan pemakanannya yang baik. Ingatannya juga sangat tajam. Beliau mampu bercerita kisah lalu dan kisah terkini melalui pembacaan surat khabar setiap hari.

Apabila bapa terjatuh, beliau mengadu sakit belakang. Kami membawa bapa berjumpa pakar tulang kerana khuatir tulangnya retak atau patah. Kadar patah tulang di kalangan orang tua sangat tinggi maka kerana itulah saya begitu prihatin dengan keadaannya.

Menurut doktor tulangnya tidak patah. Sebagaimana orang tua yang lain tulang bapa mengalami osteoporosis. Ini dapat dilihat melalui gambar sinar-x yang diambil. Tulangnya kelihatan berongga dan tidak kukuh.

Sakit yang dialami mungkin hanya sekadar kesan lebam pada ototnya. Ia tidak ada kena mengena dengan tulang. Bapa bernasib baik. Tulangnya yang nipis mudah patah.

Masalah osteoporosis ini sudah lama kami ketahui. Beberapa tahun lalu, bapa juga telah terjatuh dari motosikal. Oleh kerana khuatir maka kami telah membawanya ke hospital dan doktor mengatakan dia hanya mengalami osteoporosis.

Pelbagai usaha kami lakukan untuk meningkatkan jisim tulang bapa termasuklah dengan rawatan chelation, pengambilan kalsium tinggi serta menjaga makan minumnya. Namun begitu kami tidak berjaya meningkatkan jisim tulangnya.

“Mahukah puan mencuba hormon untuk tulang?” doktor pakar itu bertanya.

Saya amat tertarik dengan saranannya itu. Sebagai seorang doktor dan juga pengamal hormon saya teruja apabila seorang pakar tulang mengaplikasikan hormon ke dalam bidangnya.

Hormon parathyroid merupakan hormon yang terpenting bagi tulang. ”Sebagai anaboloik hormon, ia mampu meningkatkan jisim tulang dengan cara membolehkan pembinaan tulang baru,” terangnya.

Bagaimanakah tulang terbina?

Pembentukan tulang manusia dimulai pada saat masih janin dan umumnya akan bertumbuh dan berkembang terus sampai sehingga 35 tahun. Berikut adalah gambaran pembentukan tulang. Sekiranya dari awal proses pertumbuhan, banyak kalsium ada dalam darah maka tulang akan terbentuk dengan baik.

Pada usia 0 – 30/35 tahun, proses ini dinamakan modeling kerana pada masa ini terbentuknya model tulang seseorang. Ini bermakna tulang kita tidak sama antara satu sama lain. Kerana itulah kita mempunyai rupa paras yang berbeza.

Pada usia 30 – 35 tahun, pertumbuhan tulang sudah selesai, waktu ini disebut remodeling di mana modeling sudah selesai tinggal proses penggantian tulang yang sudah tua dengan tulang baru yang masih muda. Setelah pembentukan tulang selesai, maka akan terjadi penurunan jisim tulang. Hal ini bisa dicegah dengan menjaga kandungan kalsium setelah tercapainya puncak jisim tulang.

Dengan mengambil kalsium 800 – 1200 mg sehari, jisim ini boleh dipertahankan.

Untuk mencegah penurunan jisim tulang, di mana penurunan ini akan mengakibatkan berkurangnya kepadatan tulang dan tulang akan mengalami osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis lebih baik dicegah dengan cara pengambilan kalsium yang cukup setelah usia 30 atau 35 tahun.

Dalam proses pembentukan tulang, tulang mengalami regenerasi iaitu penggantian tulang-tulang yang sudah tua dengan tulang baru yang masih muda, proses ini berjalan seimbang sehingga terbentuk puncak jisim tulang. Setelah terbentuk puncak jisim tulang, tulang masih mengalami penggantian tulang yang sudah tua dengan tulang yang masih muda. Tetapi proses ini tidak berjalan seimbang di mana tulang yang diserap untuk diganti lebih banyak daripada tulang yang akan menggantikan, maka terjadi penurunan jisim tulang. Apabila keadaan ini berjalan terus menerus, akan terjadi osteoporosis.

Komposisi tulang

Tulang terdiri daripada dua bahan:

Matrik yang kaya mineral (70%) > Tulang yang sudah matang)

Bahan-bahan organik (30%) yang terdiri dari:

Sel (2%) : 1) Sel Osteoblast : yang membuat matrik (bahan) tulang / sel pembentuk tulang. 2) Sel Osteocyte : mempertahankan matrik tulang. 3) Sel Osteoclast : yang menyerap osteoid (95%) (resorbsi) bahan tulang (matrik) / sel yang menyerap tulang.

Osteoid (98%) : Matrik (bahan) tulang yang mengandung sedikit mineral (osteoid>tulang muda)

Hormon yang mempengaruhi tulang secara langsung ialah parathyroid hormone.

Kelenjar parathyroid berada berhampiran dengan kelenjar tiroid kita iaitu di leher. Akibat penuaan maka aktiviti hormon ini merosot. Ini membuatkan kalsium tidak dapat didepositkan dengan baik. Malahan kalsium yang dimakan tidak mampu di serap dan keluar semula daripada tubuh kita.

Dengan pendekatan moden iaitu meningkatkan kembali paras hormon parathyroid kepadatan tulang akan dapat ditambahkan secara semulajadi dan ini merupakan berita gembira buat kita.

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