Ibadah Korban

Pada hari Rabu ni 17.11.2010 , umat Islam akan menyambut Hari Raya Aidiladha. Pada hari yang mulia ini kebanyakan masjid dan surau di Malaysia akan melakukan ibadah korban walau pun ada yang menundanya pada hari yang lain.

Tercatat dalam kitab-kitab muktabar, Ibadah korban adalah satu sunnah yang menggambarkan peristiwa pengorbanan Nabi Ibrahim yang diarahkan oleh Allah SWT untuk menyembelih anaknya.

Korban bermaksud menghampirkan diri atau mendekatkan diri kepada Allah S.W.T, dengan menyembelih binatang korban untuk disedekahkan dagingnya kepada golongan fakir miskin.

Hukum membuat ibadah korban itu adalah sunat muakkadah (sunat yang dituntut). Walau bagaimanapun ianya boleh menjadi wajib apabila dinazarkan.

Maka secara ringkasnya, korban itu terbahagi kepada 2:

1. Sunat muakkad (sunat yang dituntut) ” Kepada orang yang mampu.Ulama juga mengatakan ia adalah sunat bagi orang yang mampu. Makruh bagi orang yang mampu itu seandainya dia tidak melakukan korban. Walau bagaimanapun jika ditinggalkannya tanpa sebarang keuzuran, tidaklah dia berdosa dan tidak wajib dia mengqadhanya.

Sunat bagi orang yang berkorban itu memakan sebahagian daripadanya.

Sebagaimana firman Allah Ta’ala dalam Surah al-Haj ayat 28: Maksudnya :

“….Maka makanlah daripadanya dan beri makanlah kepada orang-orang yang sangat fakir. Wajib disedekahkan sebahagian daripada daging-daging korban sunat itu kepada golongan fakir dan miskin yang beragama Islam dalam keadaan mentah lagi basah (belum dimasak).

Adalah Afdhal jika yang empunya korban itu hanya mengambil sedikit daripada daging korban berkenaan manakala sebahagian besar daripadanya disedekahkan.

Biasanya amalan di Malaysia ini daging korban dibahagikan kepada 3 iaitu 1 bahagian kepada yang berkorban,1 bahagian kepada fakir miskin dan 1 bahagian kepada yang bergotong royong mengerjakan lembu tersebut.

Jika daging korban itu ialah korban disebabkan wasiat dari seorang yang telah meninggal dunia, maka tidak boleh dimakan dagingnya oleh orang yang membuat korban untuknya dan tidak boleh dihadiahkan kepada orang kaya kecuali ada izinnya.

Haram menyedekah atau menghadiahkan daging korban kepada orang kafir walaupun sedikit. Tidak harus memindahkan daging qurban ke daerah lain sebagaimana dalam hukum zakat.

2. Korban wajib ” Kepada orang yang bernazar

Bagi daging korban kerana sembelihan wajib seperti nazar maka hukumnya Wajib disedekahkan kesemuanya. Haram ke atas orang yang berkorban itu memakan daging tersebut. Jika telah dimakan daging itu maka Wajib diganti kadar yang dimakan itu tetapi tidak wajib dia menyembelih semula yang lain.

Haram ke atas orang yang yang melakukan ibadah korban atau warisnya menjual daging korban itu atau kulitnya atau bulunya atau sesuatu daripada binatang korban itu sebagaimana sabda Rasullah Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam : Maksudnya: “Siapa yang menjual kulit korban (udhiyyah) itu maka tiada dikira korban baginya.” (Hadis riwayat al-Hakim) Haram menjadikan kulit dan daging binatang korban itu sebagai upah kepada penyembelih, tetapi harus diberikan kepadanya dengan jalan sedekah atau hadiah.

Binatang Korban

Syarat-syarat binatang ternakan untuk ibadat korban adalah terdiri daripada binatang-binatang seperti unta, lembu, kambing atau kibas, yang umurnya dua tahun serta sihat dan tidak cacat.

Korban bagi seekor unta atau lembu adalah untuk tujuh orang, manakala kambing adalah untuk seorang.

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