Ibu Diabetes Janin Berisiko

Kali pertama disahkan menghidap diabetes sewaktu kehamilan sedikit sebanyak memberi kejutan buat si ibu apa lagi jika diet yang sekian lama diamal dirasakan cukup sempurna untuk mengelakkan diri daripada terjebak dengan penyakit itu.

Hakikat yang perlu diterima, rata-rata golongan ibu hamil yang mempunyai sejarah keluarga khususnya ibu atau bapa sebagai penghidap diabetes, cenderung mewarisi gen penyakit ini.

Disebabkan itu, perlu difahami bagaimana keadaan ini boleh berlaku serta implikasinya tidak saja terhadap ibu malah lebih membimbangkan adalah kesan yang mungkin ditanggung bayi dalam kandungan.

Presiden Diabetes Malaysia, Prof Datuk Dr Ikram Shah Ismail menjelaskan, punca diabetes muncul sewaktu kehamilan kebiasaannya hilang selepas bayi dilahirkan.

Menurut beliau, ketika hamil, plasenta atau uri akan terbentuk sebagai organ sementara dalam badan ibu yang menghubungkannya dengan bayi sepanjang tempoh mengandung.

Uri itu, katanya, akan menghasilkan pelbagai jenis hormon yang berfungsi memastikan kandungan berada dalam keadaan selamat susulan fitrah badan manusia akan menolak badan asing (yakni kemunculan janin) di dalamnya.

“Bagaimanapun, hormon ini juga boleh berlawan dengan insulin. Dalam hal ini, insulin sedia ada dalam badan ibu yang mempunyai gen diabetes gagal melawan hormon berkenaan menyebabkan kuantiti gula dalam darah meningkat. Sebaliknya pula bagi ibu yang tiada gen diabetes, insulinnya lebih kuat untuk melawan hormon berkenaan.

“Bagi ibu yang menghidap diabetes, apabila dia melahirkan bayinya, uri yang menjadi sumber hormon tadi turut sama keluar, maka aras gula pun normal semula,” katanya.

Menjelaskan lebih lanjut, Dr Ikram berkata, amat penting untuk ibu hamil menghidap diabetes mengawal kadar gula dalam darah sepanjang tempoh kehamilan bagi mengelak risiko lebih teruk. Keletihan buat si ibu dan saiz besar buat bayi, ujarnya, adalah perkara biasa yang disebut akan berlaku sewaktu kehamilan berdiabetes tapi ia bukan lagi isu utama.

Paling merisaukan, kata beliau, seharusnya kesan diabetes terhadap kesihatan dan organ dalaman bayi yang antara lain menyebabkan penyakit kongenital seperti jantung berlubang dan sebagainya, malah gula tidak terkawal juga boleh mengakibatkan bayi meninggal dunia.

“Tanpa kita sedari, gula pun boleh menjadi racun buat ibu dan bayi dalam kandungan. Ini antara perkara yang perlu golongan ibu fikirkan.

“Memang mencabar buat ibu menghidap diabetes kerana dia perlu makan untuk bekalkan zat kepada anak yang dikandung dan berat badan juga perlu naik, tidak boleh diet melampau.

“Di sinilah perlunya kebijaksanaan ibu dalam memilih jenis makanan yang sesuai selain melakukan senaman ringan mengikut kemampuan masing-masing,” ujarnya.

Dr Ikram berkata, beliau sedia maklum ada juga ibu hamil yang gemarkan makanan manis sewaktu hamil, antara istilah mengidam, menghilangkan loya atau sekadar kehendak nafsu. Oleh itu, beliau menasihatkan golongan sebegini supaya tidak terlalu melayan keinginan berkenaan sebaliknya mengutamakan kesihatan bayi dikandung.

Pada masa sama, Dr Ikram mengingatkan ibu yang bebas diabetes selepas melahirkan bayi mereka supaya mula menjaga pemakanan dan mengamalkan aktiviti bersenam sebagai persediaan menghadapi sebarang kemungkinan.

“Kamu (ibu hamil menghidap diabetes) sudah ada gen diabetes, maka ia boleh timbul lagi pada bila-bila masa. Mungkin gen itu tidak boleh dihapus terus tetapi sentiasa kita maklumkan pada mereka, kemunculannya boleh dilengahkan menerusi amalan gaya hidup yang lebih sihat.

“Orang zaman dulu, datuk nenek kita, guna banyak tenaga kudrat ketika bekerja, yang secara tidak langsung melengahkan kemunculan diabetes sehingga usia mencecah 60 tahun. Ketika itu komplikasinya tidak begitu terasa kerana jangka hayat rakyat Malaysia pun sekitar umur itu.

“Kita sekarang ramai yang bekerja di pejabat berhawa dingin, terlalu jarang mengerah tenaga, ini yang membimbangkan.

“Makanan memang faktor penting tetapi lebih penting melakukan senaman kerana sensitiviti insulin dalam badan dapat dipertingkatkan. Yang diwarisi itu adalah kekebalan insulin, apabila insulin banyak dalam badan tetapi tidak digunakan maka senaman adalah kaedah terbaik mengurangkan kekebalan ini,” kata Dr Ikram sempena kempen Hari Diabetes Sedunia NUTREN Together We Take Charge anjuran bersama Nestle di Petaling Jaya, Selangor baru-baru ini.

Turut hadir cef selebriti tanah air, Datuk Redzuawan Ismail atau Cef Wan. Kempen itu bermatlamat memperkasakan pengurusan diabetes menerusi sokongan semua pihak sama ada penghidap mahupun bukan. Pegawai Eksekutif Perniagaan Nestle Health Science, Emilyn Loo berkata, sasaran pihaknya bukan sekadar memberi pendidikan mengenai diabetes kepada penghidap malah tidak terkecuali golongan pra-diabetes, penjaga dan orang awam.

“Rakyat Malaysia memang mewah dengan aneka pilihan makanan. Disebabkan itu, penghidap diabetes perlu diperkasakan dengan maklumat mengenai nutrisi serta diet seimbang untuk memastikan kandungan gula di dalam darah mereka sentiasa terkawal,” katanya.

Berdasarkan data Persekutuan Diabetes Antarabangsa pada 2015, kira-kira 17.5 peratus rakyat negara ini dikesan menghidap diabetes yang lantas menjadikan Malaysia pemilik kadar diabetes tertinggi di Asia Tenggara. Angka itu dianggap terlalu tinggi, melebihi purata global yang merekodkan cuma sekitar 10 peratus populasi dunia.

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