Jejas Orang Sekeliling

Kenapa perokok berasakan diri lebih bertenaga dan fokus selepas merokok, terutama dalam keadaan tertekan?

Sebatang rokok tembakau mengandungi nikotin (bahan racun serangga), butane (bahan pemetik api), arsenik (racun), metanol (minyak roket), ammonia (pembersih lantai) dan sebagainya bertindak merangsang aktiviti otak.

Sebatang rokok mengandungi kira-kira lapan hingga sembilan miligram nikotin yang disifatkan bahan psikoaktif, malah kajian menunjukkan bahan berbahaya itu memberi kesan terhadap psikologi individu.

Perokok juga percaya rokok membantu mereka fokus dalam sesuatu hal termasuk ketika memandu, mengurangkan tekanan, memberi ketenangan fikiran dan paling popular dalam kalangan wanita adalah membantu menurunkan berat badan.

Pakar Kesihatan Pekerjaan, Dr Hazlee Abdul Hadi berkata, terdapat tujuh juta perokok di Malaysia terdiri daripada 50 peratus lelaki dewasa, manakala 45 hingga 50 peratus kanak-kanak berusia 18 tahun terperangkap dalam jerat rokok.

“Merokok bukanlah tabiat sebaliknya ketagihan yang tidak dapat dikawal oleh individu.

“Kebanyakan perokok menyedari risiko kesihatan yang bakal dialami akibat gaya hidup tidak sihat ini, namun mereka selesa meneruskan rutin merokok.

“Alasan paling mudah, perokok menyifatkan rokok sebagai alternatif yang memberi ‘keseronokan’ sedangkan hakikatnya ia hanya disebabkan ketagihan nikotin.

“Untuk sebatang rokok, biasanya perokok melakukan sekurang-kurangnya 10 kali sedutan. Sekiranya perokok mengambil satu pek rokok bersamaan 20 batang, mereka menyedut sebanyak 200 kali bahan berbahaya ke dalam tubuh masing-masing.

“Dalam setiap sedutan, nikotin akan tersebar atau sampai ke bahagian otak perokok dalam tempoh tujuh saat.

“Catatan ini juga jauh lebih cepat berbanding jarum suntikan penuh heroin yang disuntik ke dalam vena, seterusnya membuktikan rokok atau nikotin ini sangat bahaya.

“Apabila nikotin memasuki otak, ia akan mempengaruhi aktiviti otak, lantas terhasilnya kesan keseronokan seperti mengurangkan kebimbangan dan memberi ketenangan kepada perokok,” katanya sempena pelancaran inisiatif Bebas Puntung WEWE, anjuran Pusat Perubatan Prince Court, baru-baru ini.

Tegasnya, nikotin antara satu daripada dadah yang bertoksid berbanding sianida. Meskipun wujud pelbagai kempen antirokok dan pelaksanaan undang-undang larangan merokok di tempat awam seperti restoran dan kawasan rehat dan rawat (R&R), namun golongan perokok tidak peduli.

Jelasnya, kira-kira 55 peratus perokok mengakui kenaikan harga rokok tidak akan menyebabkan mereka bertukar kepada jenama rokok yang lebih murah.

Pakar perubatan respiratori, Dr Fauzi Md Anshar berkata, ketagihan nikotin bukan hanya menjejaskan kesihatan perokok bahkan individu sekeliling yang dikategorikan perokok pasif atau perokok kedua (mereka yang terdedah dengan asap rokok) seperti isteri, anak, ahli keluarga, rakan dan orang awam.

Secara umumnya, ketagihan merokok menjejaskan sistem pernafasan seperti penyakit sekatan pernafasan kronik (COPD), radang paru-paru, asma dan kanser paru-paru.

Katanya, batuk adalah satu simptom biasa dialami perokok kerana wujudnya gangguan dalam paru-paru yang berfungsi membebaskan oksigen dan berguna untuk proses metabolisma, karbon dioksida dan wap air dikeluarkan daripada paru-paru menerusi rongga hidung.

Sementara itu, Pegawai Perubatan Klinik Kesihatan Berhenti Merokok Tanglin, Dr Takdir Singh tidak menafikan perokok tegar menghadapi risiko diserang penyakit berbahaya seperti emfisema dan sakit jantung.

Katanya, perokok yang ingin menghentikan ketagihan nikotin perlu tekad dan mencari kaedah terbaik.

Selain memahami kesan buruk bakal dialami, mereka juga perlu tahu wujudnya perubatan positif terhadap sistem tubuh sekiranya berhenti merokok.

“Selain keazaman perokok untuk berhenti, mereka turut memerlukan sokongan keluarga dan masyarakat.

“Antara langkah awal boleh dilakukan adalah menyediakan pelan yang boleh mengalih tumpuan seperti merancang lokasi untuk bercuti atau mencari individu terbaik untuk dihubungi.

“Perokok juga boleh mendapatkan sokongan daripada forum dalam talian yang disertai mereka yang ingin berhenti merokok,” katanya.

Ujarnya, perkongsian pengalaman secara terbuka dengan bekas perokok untuk mendapatkan panduan turut memberi kelebihan kepada perokok.

Dr Takdir berkata, pada permulaan, perokok akan mengalami gejala awal seperti rasa kecewa, terganggu, marah, insomnia, gangguan tidur, rasa kurang sabar, kurang fokus, tidak cukup rehat dan tertekan (sekurang-kurang empat minggu), berselera makan dan penambahan berat badan (dalam tempoh lebih 10 minggu).

Ada tiga rawatan untuk membantu perokok menghentikan ketagihan termasuk terapi penggantian nikotin (NRT), rawatan tidak berasaskan nikotin dan rawatan kombinasi.

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