Jenis-jenis Penyakit Mental

Terdapat syarat-syarat yang berbeza yang dikenali sebagai penyakit mental.
Jenis-jenis yang lebih biasa termasuk:
Gangguan kebimbangan: Orang dengan gangguan keresahan bertindak balas terhadap objek atau keadaan tertentu dengan takut dan gentar, dan juga dengan tanda-tanda fizikal kebimbangan atau panik, seperti denyutan jantung yang cepat dan berpeluh. Gangguan kebimbangan didiagnosis jika sambutan orang itu tidak sesuai untuk keadaan tersebut, jika orang yang tidak dapat mengawal tindak balas, atau jika kebimbangan mengganggu fungsi normal. Gangguan kebimbangan termasuk gangguan umum kebimbangan, gangguan panik, gangguan kebimbangan sosial, dan fobia tertentu.
Kecelaruan mood: Ini gangguan, juga dikenali sebagai gangguan afektif, melibatkan perasaan berterusan kesedihan atau tempoh-tempoh perasaan terlalu gembira, atau turun naik dari kebahagiaan yang melampau untuk kesedihan yang melampau. Gangguan mood yang paling biasa ialah kemurungan, gangguan bipolar, dan gangguan cyclothymic.
Gangguan psikotik: gangguan psikotik melibatkan kesedaran dan pemikiran diputarbelitkan. Dua daripada gejala yang paling biasa gangguan psikotik adalah halusinasi – pengalaman imej atau bunyi yang tidak benar, seperti mendengar suara – dan khayalan, yang tetap kepercayaan palsu bahawa orang yang sakit menerima sebagai benar, walaupun bukti kepada sebaliknya. Schizophrenia adalah contoh gangguan psikotik.
Gangguan makan: Gangguan makan melibatkan emosi yang melampau, sikap, dan tingkah laku yang melibatkan berat badan dan makanan. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, dan gangguan pesta minum-minum makan adalah yang paling biasa gangguan makan.
Kawalan dan ketagihan Impulse gangguan: Orang dengan gangguan kawalan impuls tidak dapat menahan nafsu, atau impuls, untuk melakukan perbuatan yang boleh membahayakan diri sendiri atau orang lain. Pyromania (bermula kebakaran), sakit curi (mencuri), dan perjudian kompulsif adalah contoh gangguan kawalan gerak hati. Alkohol dan dadah adalah objek biasa ketagihan. Selalunya, mereka yang mengalami gangguan ini menjadi begitu terlibat dengan objek ketagihan mereka bahawa mereka mula mengabaikan tanggungjawab dan hubungan.
Gangguan personaliti: Orang dengan gangguan personaliti mempunyai personaliti yang melampau dan tidak fleksibel yang menyedihkan kepada orang itu dan / atau menyebabkan masalah dalam kerja, sekolah, atau hubungan sosial. Di samping itu, corak orang itu terhadap pemikiran dan tingkah laku ketara berbeza daripada jangkaan masyarakat dan begitu tegar yang mereka mengganggu fungsi normal seseorang. Contohnya termasuk gangguan personaliti antisosial, gangguan personaliti keterlaluan-kompulsif, dan gangguan personaliti paranoid.
Obsesif-kompulsif gangguan (OCD): Orang dengan OCD dibelenggu oleh pemikiran yang berat atau kebimbangan yang menyebabkan mereka melakukan ritual atau rutin tertentu. Pemikiran membimbangkan dipanggil obsesi, dan upacara dipanggil dorongan. Satu contoh ialah orang yang mempunyai rasa takut yang tidak munasabah kuman yang sentiasa mencuci tangan keduanya.
Gangguan tekanan selepas trauma (PTSD): PTSD adalah suatu keadaan yang boleh membangunkan selepas peristiwa traumatik dan / atau menakutkan, seperti serangan seksual atau fizikal, kematian yang tidak dijangka yang dikasihi, atau bencana alam. Orang yang mempunyai PTSD sering mempunyai pemikiran dan kenangan yang berkekalan dan menakutkan acara itu, dan cenderung untuk menjadi emosi kebas.

 

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List of Diseases

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