Kanak-kanak Terus Terdedah Tibi

Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) menganggarkan seramai satu juta kanak-kanak di seluruh dunia menghidap batuk kering atau tibi (tuberkulosis) pada 2014 dan 140,000 daripada mereka meninggal dunia.

Tibi dalam kalangan kanak-kanak menunjukkan masih berlaku perpindahan berterusan kuman penyakit berkenaan. Kanak-kanak biasanya terdedah dan dijangkiti akibat berdekatan dengan orang yang rapat seperti ahli keluarga yang menghidap tibi.

Serangan tibi tidak mengenal usia bagaimanapun, paling teruk berlaku dalam kalangan kanak-kanak berusia satu hingga empat tahun. Kanak-kanak boleh jatuh sakit sejurus terkena jangkitan kuman tibi, namun kadangkala gejala jangkitan berlaku agak lewat.

Tibi dalam kalangan kanak-kanak boleh dipulihkan jika dikesan awal dan dirawat sebaik-baiknya. Mereka yang berisiko dijangkiti kuman tibi boleh dikesan menggunakan kaedah mudah dan alat imbasan dada atau penilaian klinikal oleh kakitangan kesihatan terlatih.

Namun, apa yang menyulitkan diagnosis dalam kalangan kanak-kanak adalah kebanyakan pesakit tibi datang dari keluarga miskin, kurang pengetahuan mengenai penyakit dan tinggal dalam komuniti yang mempunyai akses terhad terhadap perkhidmatan kesihatan.

Di Malaysia, bilangan kanak-kanak berusia kurang lima tahun yang disaring dengan penyakit berbahaya ini meningkat daripada 244 kes pada 2014 kepada 277 kes tahun lalu.

Timbalan Menteri Kesihatan, Datuk Seri Dr Hilmi Yahaya berkata, bilangan itu membimbangkan kerana menunjukkan peningkatan sebanyak 13 peratus. Oleh itu, pemahaman mengenai risiko jangkitan tibi dalam kalangan kanak-kanak adalah untuk meningkatkan diagnosis dan mencegah pesakit kanak-kanak di negara ini.

Menurutnya, Malaysia komited menjalinkan kerjasama dengan WHO dalam usaha menghentikan penyebaran epidemik tibi secara global menjelang 2035 menerusi Strategi Tamatkan Tibi.

“Menjelang 2035, WHO menganggarkan pengurangan insiden tibi sebanyak 90 peratus manakala pengurangan kematian akibat tibi sebanyak 95 peratus dibandingkan dengan tahun lalu.

“Bagi meningkatkan usaha memerangi penyakit ini, Pelan Strategik Kebangsaan (NSP) Kawalan Tibi (2016-2020) negara digerakkan sejajar dengan strategi yang dijalankan WHO itu.

“NSP terbahagi kepada tiga peringkat iaitu mengintegrasikan pusat jagaan pesakit dan langkah pencegahan, garis panduan dan sistem sokongan serta mempergiatkan penyelidikan dan inovasi,” katanya pada perasmian Seminar Penyakit Paru-Paru dan Tibi Kebangsaan di ibu negara, baru-baru ini.

Dr Hilmi berkata, tindakan di luar sektor kesihatan termasuk mengurangkan kemiskinan, memastikan keselamatan makanan dan menaik taraf keadaan hidup dan pekerjaan. Usaha berkenaan yang terkandung dalam NSP memerlukan kerjasama daripada kementerian lain.

“Pemeriksaan, diagnosis awal dan rawatan semua bentuk tibi hingga ia pulih adalah matlamat utama program kawalan tibi. Kerajaan sudah memulakan pemeriksaan sistematik kumpulan risiko tinggi tibi seperti pesakit HIV, diabetes, kegagalan buah pinggang, paru-paru kronik, warga emas, perokok dan banduan.

“Data pada 2015 menunjukkan kira-kira 253,955 orang dalam kumpulan berisiko tinggi ini sudah menjalani pemeriksaan tibi dan hasilnya sebanyak 3,039 kes dikesan positif dengan penyakit tibi,” katanya.

Katanya, kerajaan berusaha membawa perkhidmatan penjagaan kesihatan berkualiti lebih dekat dengan masyarakat dan kementeriannya sudahpun memulakan inisiatif pemeriksaan tibi menerusi mesin sinar X bergerak di Sabah dan Sarawak.

“Kerajaan berharap menerusi perkhidmatan itu, lebih banyak kes tibi dikesan di kawasan pedalaman dan rawatan dapat disalurkan lebih awal. Selain itu, kemudahan pengesanan tibi juga ditambah di hospital dan klinik kerajaan.

“Masyarakat juga perlu memainkan peranan dalam usaha mengurangkan beban penyakit ini. Menerusi inisiatif komuniti bebas aedes dan tuberkulosis (COMBAT), ia bermatlamat untuk mengubah tingkah laku awam untuk mengamalkan gaya hidup sihat seperti etika batuk dan kebersihan tangan untuk pencegahan,” katanya.

Mesej kesedaran gejala tibi pula dijalankan menerusi pembabitan sukarelawan yang akan melakukan lawatan rumah ke rumah.

Penduduk yang menunjukkan gejala seperti batuk berpanjangan lebih dua minggu, demam, berpeluh malam, hilang selera makan dan susut berat badan akan dirujuk ke pusat kesihatan berhampiran untuk pemeriksaan lanjut dan pengesanan tibi.

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