Kecederaan Boleh Bawa Maut

SUARA merupakan aset penting yang dimiliki setiap individu. Ia merupakan satu tenaga bunyi dengan getaran yang mempunyai ukuran gelombang tertentu dan terhasil daripada tekanan udara dari dalam binaan rongga tubuh manusia melibatkan paru-paru, korda vokal ( vocal cord ) dan otot-otot di dalam peti suara ( larinks ) serta bahagian atas laluan (trek) suara iaitu lidah, lelangit, pipi (sinus) dan bibir .

Suara terhasil apabila berlaku getaran di korda vokal yang merupakan sepasang jaluran tisu di bahagian paling atas saluran pernafasan trakea di dalam kotak atau peti suara.

Korda vokal diselaputi oleh tulang rawan tiroid ( thyroid cartilage ) di bahagian hadapan dan tulang rawan aritenoid ( arytenoids cartilage ) di bahagian belakang.

Korda vokal bersama-sama otot dan tulang rawan yang menyokongnya dipanggil larinks (kotak atau peti suara)

Dari segi biologi, larinks bertindak sebagai injap untuk melindungi bahagian pernafasan serta paru-paru.

Kedudukannya adalah bertepatan di mana saluran pernafasan dan makanan ( esophagus ) terpisah.

Bagi korda vokal, ia akan berada pada kedudukan membuka untuk membolehkan pernafasan berlaku dan menutup semasa menelan untuk mengelakkan makanan daripada memasuki paru-paru dan ia juga tertutup semasa bercakap.

Menurut Pakar Perunding Telinga, Hidung, Tekak dan Surgeri Kepala dan Leher, Kelana Jaya Medical Centre, Dr. Samril Bokari , sekiranya berlaku kecederaan saraf pada korda vokal ia mampu menjejaskan fungsi-fungsi yang dilakukan oleh korda vokal seperti pernafasan, menelan dan juga bertutur.

Tambah beliau lagi, kedua-dua korda vokal ini dikawal oleh saraf yang dipanggil Rekuren Larinks (R ecurent Laryngeal Nerve ).

“Jika terjadinya kerosakan pada saraf tersebut sama ada sepenuhnya ( total paralysis ) atau separa ( paresis ), kelumpuhan korda vokal boleh berlaku.

“Dalam keadaan tersebut korda vokal tidak dapat membuka dan menutup secara sepenuhnya bagi kelumpuhan separa manakala dalam kelumpuhan sepenuhnya korda vokal tidak bergerak langsung.

“Begitupun, apa yang boleh menyebabkannya membawa maut ialah sekiranya kedua-dua korda vokal tidak berfungsi ia akan mengakibatkan seseorang itu sukar untuk bernafas,” ujarnya ketika ditemui baru-baru ini.

Jelas beliau lagi, antara penyebab berlakunya kelumpuhan korda vokal ialah ketumbuhan di peti suara, trauma di bahagian leher akibat kemalangan pembedahan leher (terutamanya kelenjar tiroid) dan pembedahan bahagian atas dada.

Selain itu, neurotoxin atau terdedah kepada bahan-bahan seperti berbahaya seperti lead, arsenik dan merkuri, jangkitan kuman, jangkitan virus, kecacatan kontigental serta idiopatik (tidak diketahui punca) juga boleh menyebabkan kelumpuhan korda vokal.

Menurut Dr. Samril, apabila korda vokal mengalami kelumpuhan, individu tersebut akan mendapati ada perubahan serta kelainan pada dirinya.

Katanya, kelumpuhan pada korda vokal terbahagi kepada dua iaitu kelumpuhan melibatkan sebelah korda vokal sahaja (unilateral) atau melibatkan kedua-dua belah korda vokal (bilateral).

Mengikut statistik, kelumpuhan unilateral adalah lebih kerap berlaku berbanding dengan kelumpuhan bilateral dan korda vokal sebelah kiri mempunyai kebarangkalian cedera atau lumpuh dua kali ganda berbanding sebelah kanan atas faktor anatomi saraf tersebut.

Daripada statistik tersebut juga turut mencatatkan perempuan mempunyai risiko 33 peratus lebih tinggi berbanding lelaki mengalami kelumpuhan ini.

Mengulas lanjut mengenai hal tersebut, simptom yang dapat dilihat jika seseorang mengalami kelumpuhan unilateral ialah suara yang termengah-mengah, suara menjadi kasar atau serak, tidak boleh bertutur dengan suara yang kuat dan kualiti suara juga berubah.

Manakala simptom bagi individu yang mengalami kelumpuhan bilateral pula mereka akan mengalami kesukaran bernafas, pernafasan berbunyi dengan kuat ( stridor ), kesukaran menelan menyebabkan batuk atau tersedak semasa makan serta komplikasi akibat tersedak makanan seperti pneumonia.

Begitupun, bagi mengelak sebarang perkara yang tidak diingini berlaku, mereka yang mengalami simptom-simptom di atas bolehlah membuat pemeriksaan di mana-mana klinik atau hospital.

Malah menurut Dr. Samril lagi, kelumpuhan korda vokal boleh dikesan pada peringkat awal dengan melakukan pemeriksaan menggunakan kamera endoskopi sama ada dimasukkan melalui hidung ataupun mulut.

“Pemeriksaan menggunakan kamera endoskopi ini membolehkan korda vokal dilihat serta pergerakannya boleh diuji dengan mengeluarkan suara atau semasa rehat.

“Dalam masa yang sama, anatomi sekelilingnya juga boleh diperiksa atau dilihat untuk mengenalpasti sekiranya terdapat sebarang ketumbuhan,” katanya.

Sudah pasti setiap penyakit ada cara rawatannya dan begitu juga bagi mereka yang mengalami kelumpuhan korda vokal.

Bagi pesakit kelumpuhan bilateral rawatannya ialah melalui pembedahan trakeostomi atau pembedahan laser ( laser cordectomy) , manakala kelumpuhan korda vokal unilateral boleh dirawat dengan i suntikan kolagen, lemak, tisu graf dan teflon.

Selain itu, khidmat terapi pertuturan juga diperlukan untuk membantu pesakit-pesakit kelumpuhan korda vokal menjalani rehabilitasi suara sebelum atau selepas pembedahan atau pun untuk kes-kes yang tidak memerlukan pembedahan.

Jadi dalam erti kata lain, korda vokal anda perlulah dijaga agar ia tidak mengalami sebarang kecederaan mahupun kelumpuhan agar tidak mengganggu sebarang tugasan mahupun komunikasi harian anda.

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