Kelebihan Penjagaan Kanggaru

Pernahkah terfikir mengapa wanita yang melahirkan anak diberi keistimewaan cuti berpantang selama sekurang-kurangnya dua bulan, malah ada negara yang bermurah hati membenarkan mereka berehat sehingga tiga bulan? Ya, supaya si ibu boleh berehat panjang kerana proses bersalin itu memberi satu tekanan besar kepada badan selain memberi peluang untuk menjaga anak sepenuhnya.

Dalam tempoh ini jugalah si ibu disarankan memberikan susu badan secara eksklusif sekurang-kurangnya selama enam bulan. Ketika penyusuan inilah biasanya ibu akan membelai si kecil yang secara tidak langsung membantu merangsang perkembangan dan tumbesarannya.

Amalan sentuhan kulit-ke-kulit yang dikenali sebagai penjagaan kanggaru seperti sifat semula jadi haiwan marsupial itu yang membawa anak kecil dalam kantung selepas beranak hinggalah si anak cukup besar. Kaedah itu kini diperkenalkan ke seluruh dunia bagi membantu perkembangan bayi yang dilahirkan tidak cukup bulan.

Selepas menerima pelbagai pandangan negatif, kini kaedah yang dimulakan di Colombia sejak lebih 30 tahun lalu akibat kekurangan inkubator sudah menjadi amalan biasa di negara Amerika Selatan ini sebelum cerita mengenai kebaikannya tersebar ke negara lain.

Di Hospital San Ignacio, Bogota, bapa seperti Cesar Algeciras mengaku boleh menghabiskan masa sehingga lima jam di unit penjagaan rapi neonatal sambil memeluk bayi comelnya yang dilahirkan tidak cukup bulan.

“Dapat merasai degupan jantungnya membuatkan saya rasa cukup terharu. Kadangkala saya tidak perlu pun melihat ke monitor untuk memastikan dia dalam keadaan baik,” kata jurutera komputer sambil mendakap erat anak lelaki sulung ke dadanya.

Dilahirkan hanya selepas 27 minggu dalam kandungan, anak Algeciras itu adalah antara beberapa bayi pramatang di hospital yang perlu ‘berjuang’ untuk hidup. Walaupun si kecil itu banyak menghabiskan masanya dalam inkubator, Algeciras percaya kaedah mendakap anak itu mempunyai keajaiban tersendiri.

Malah Dr Nathalie Charpak, doktor yang bersungguh-sungguh menjadikan penjagaan kanggaru itu sebagai satu standard di hospital sejak 1978 juga percaya kaedah berkenaan ada kebaikannya.

“Bayi di unit penjagaan rapi tidak tidur lebih daripada 19 minit pada satu-satu masa. Keadaan ini amat membimbangkan, ia umpama satu penyiksaan bagi mereka kerana secara lumrahnya bayi memang memerlukan tidur yang banyak untuk membesar,” katanya.

Walaupun kedengaran amat mudah, teknik penjagaan kanggaru ini ada peraturan tertentu. Ibu bapa tidak dibenarkan menukar posisi duduk kecuali apabila mahu memberi susu atau menukar lampin bayi. Malah, pada waktu malam pun, ibu bapa tidak boleh berbaring kerana bayi perlu berada dalam keadaan tegak dan sentiasa bersentuhan dengan kulit ibu atau bapa mereka.

Bahkan keadaan persekitaran juga amat penting. Dalam usaha menghasilkan persekitaran seperti dalam rahim ibu, jururawat di Hospital San Ignacio memastikan lampu dimalapkan dan sentiasa berwaspada supaya tahap kebisingan tidak melebihi 60 desibel.

Charpak mendakwa amalan ini mempunyai kesan yang sama seperti inkubator dan ia turut menarik perhatian negara lain.

“Kami sudah melatih pengamal perubatan di lebih 30 negara termasuk Amerika Syarikat, Sepanyol dan Sweden,” kata doktor wanita itu.

Ramai juga doktor Colombia yang sanggup merentas perjalanan jauh sehingga ke Asia dan Afrika semata-mata mahu memberitahu mengenai amalan berkenaan. Ternyata usaha itu tidak sia-sia kerana banyak negara sudah mula mempraktikkannya.

Berdasarkan maklumat Tabung Darurat Kanak-kanak Antarabangsa Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (UNICEF), dalam tempoh 20 tahun, Brazil sudah berjaya mengurangkan kadar kematian bayi di bawah usia lima tahun sebanyak 66 peratus di bawah program yang turut merangkumi kaedah penjagaan kanggaru.

Satu kajian yang dijalankan ke atas ibu di Sweden mendapati walaupun peserta mendakwa kaedah itu memenatkan, tiada seorang pun menarik diri.

Pada awalnya, ia dianggap sebagai ‘kaedah alternatif untuk si miskin’. Bagaimanapun, kaedah ini mula popular apabila pada 2004 Pertubuhan Kesihatan Dunia (WHO) mengiktirafnya sebagai salah satu cara menggalakkan penyusuan badan dan pada masa sama dapat merangsang perkembangan kognitif si anak.

Menurut WHO, kelahiran pramatang masih menjadi punca utama kematian bayi di seluruh dunia iaitu seorang daripada bayi meninggal dunia sebelum sempat mencecah umur sebulan.

Meskipun manfaat penjagaan kanggaru ini sudah dihebahkan, tetapi budaya masyarakat membuatkan ada sesetengah orang masih berat hati untuk melakukannya. Keadaan ini amat jelas terutama di negara yang ramai penduduk miskin seperti India dan Afrika di mana apabila seseorang wanita itu balik ke rumah bermakna dia perlu mula bekerja, bukannya duduk di rumah menjaga anak, kata Charpak.

Bahkan ada juga doktor yang sukar menerima kaedah ini khususnya di negara maju. Masih ramai doktor yang tidak bersedia membawa masuk kaedah ini ke hospital atau klinik mereka hanya kerana ia datang dari negara kurang membangun, sambungnya.

Namun di Hospital San Ignacio yang menjadi ibu pejabat Yayasan Kanggaru, ibu bapa seperti Algeciras percaya kaedah berkenaan memberi sumbangan besar kepada perkembangan anaknya.

Di hospital itu, setiap hari kita boleh melihat hampir 30 ibu memeluk bayi masing-masing yang ‘halus’ rapat ke hati mereka!

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