Kes HCV Di Tahap Getir

Virus hepatitis boleh diklasifikasikan dalam lima jenis utama iaitu A, B, C, D dan E. Daripada lima jenis ini, hanya B dan C yang akan berkembang menjadi penyakit kronik manakala A dan E secara umumnya terhenti atau pulih dengan sendiri. Jangkitan hepatitis D pula hanya berlaku dalam kehadiran jangkitan hepatitis B.

Hepatitis bermaksud keradangan hati (hepar) dan virus hepatitis C (HCV) mempunyai kecenderungan yang amat tinggi untuk menyerang hepar. Ia ditemui buat kali pertama pada 1989 oleh Micheal Houghton dan rakannya di Chiron Corporation, California, Amerika Syarikat.

Virus ini tergolong dalam keluarga Flavivirus. Kebiasaannya virus ini akan menyerang sel hepar. Dianggarkan 160 juta orang dijangkiti hepatitis C (HCV) di seluruh dunia, dengan 350,000 daripada mereka maut setiap tahun.

Pakar Perunding Hepatologi Pusat Perubatan Universiti Malaya (PPUM), Prof Dr Rosmawati Mohamed berkata, bilangan kes HCV yang meningkat membimbangkan dan perlu mencari cara mengawal penyakit ini.

“Jika tidak dirawat HCV mengancam nyawa pesakit kerana boleh menyebabkan penyakit hati, sirosis serta kanser hati. Buat masa ini rawatan biasa untuk HCV mengambil masa hingga 48 minggu. Rawatan pegylated interferon/ribavirin hanya berupaya mencapai pembersihan penuh virus kurang 50 peratus kes bagi jenis HCV tertentu.

“Ramai yang masih belum peka terhadap simptom hepatitis C kerana berasakan mereka tidak sakit, kurang mengambil berat terhadap simptom yang dianggap ringan seperti demam atau cepat letih.

“Perkara ini amat menyedihkan kerana kebanyakan kes hepatitis C diketahui selepas usia 40 tahun walaupun ramai pesakit dipercayai dijangkiti virus berkenaan lebih awal,” katanya ketika ditemui pada pelancaran Sovaldi dan Harvoni iaitu rawatan terbaru HCV di ibu negara, baru-baru ini.

Sovaldi dan Harvoni adalah antivirus tindak terus yang mengandungi sofosbuvir dan ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Bahan aktif ini menyasarkan peringkat berlainan dalam kitar hayat HCV serta menyekat HCV daripada membiak.

Kerana itu, berbanding rawatan biasa HCV yang memakan masa hampir setahun, antivirus Sovaldi dan Harvoni bertindak dalam masa lapan hingga 12 minggu sahaja.

Risiko jangkitan HCV

Berkongsi peralatan suntikan ubat

Pemindahan darah/organ sebelum pemeriksaan diperkenalkan (di Malaysia sebelum 1994)

Berkongsi penggunaan peralatan yang tidak disteril dalam bidang perubatan atau pergigian

Tatu dan bertindik menggunakan perkakas tidak disteril

Cedera tercucuk picagari (petugas kesihatan)

Aktiviti seks tanpa perlindungan atau banyak pasangan

Pemindahan daripada ibu kepada bayi sewaktu bersalin

Suntikan dadah, walaupun hanya sekali

Ujian darah dan kaitan dengan HCV

(Ini termasuk)

Anti HCV (sejenis antibodi)

ALT (sejenis enzim hati)

HCV RNA (cebisan bahagian virus berkenaan)

Genotip (satu strain virus ini)

Hepatitis C disebarkan melalui darah tercemar

(Sebahagian daripada laluan jangkitan ini adalah seperti berikut)

Menerima pemindahan organ atau darah daripada penderma sebelum 1994.

Darah tercemar di tempat kerja (seperti pekerja dalam bidang penjagaan kesihatan).

Menyuntik dadah secara haram atau berkongsi jarum dengan seseorang yang dijangkiti hepatitis C.

Menjalani proses dialisis buah pinggang untuk jangka masa lama.

Melakukan hubungan seksual tanpa sebarang perlindungan dengan seseorang yang dijangkiti hepatitis C.

Dilahirkan oleh ibu yang dijangkiti hepatitis C.

Membuat cacah (tatu) atau akupunktur menggunakan jarum yang tidak dibasmi kuman dengan sempurna selepas digunakan pada orang lain (risiko ini adalah rendah sekiranya ia dilaksanakan oleh pengamal yang memiliki lesen mencacah atau lesen akupunktur).

Berkongsi barangan peribadi seperti berus gigi dan pisau cukur dengan seseorang yang dijangkiti hepatitis C.

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