Kesedaran Ibu Bapa Penting

Susu ibu sememangnya makanan terbaik yang diberikan sebaik bayi lahir untuk menguatkan daya ketahanan tubuh si kecil itu terhadap penyakit.

Namun, ada ketikanya golongan ibu tidak berupaya memberikan susu badan kepada anak mereka dan beralih kepada susu formula sebagai jalan penyelesaian.

Tahukah anda pemberian susu formula berkenaan ada kalanya boleh mendatangkan bahaya sekiranya bayi mengalami alahan protein susu lembu (CMPA)?

CMPA adalah alahan makanan paling lazim berlaku pada bayi. Walaupun statistik alahan tempatan agak terhad, tetapi susu lembu dipercayai menjadi punca utama alahan makanan dialami bayi di Malaysia dan negara Asia lain.

Namun, ia sering disalah tafsir kerana kesannya merangkumi pelbagai tindak balas alahan berlainan.

Presiden Persatuan Alergi dan Imunologi Malaysia (MSAI), Dr Amir Hamzah Abdul Latiff berkata, ibu bapa perlu peka terhadap masalah kesihatan dialami anak kerana CMPA adalah satu perkara serius.

“Gejala alahan terhadap protein susu lembu boleh menyebabkan berlakunya anafilaksis iaitu reaksi alahan teruk dan ia boleh meragut nyawa.

“Penting untuk mendapatkan rawatan awal terutama daripada pegawai kesihatan bertauliah bagi mengurangkan kesan alahan dialami kanak-kanak berkenaan,” katanya ketika pelancaran Kempen CMPA, baru-baru ini.

Kempen CMPA ini diadakan sempena Minggu Alahan Sedunia 2013 bagi meningkatkan kesedaran dan mendidik ibu bapa mengenai masalah yang sering berlaku dalam kalangan kanak-kanak ini.

Hadir sama, Ketua Bahagian Pediatrik, Fakulti Perubatan Universiti Malaya, Prof Lee Way Seah dan pakar pediatrik, Dr Chai Pei Fan.

Menurutnya, istilah terkini untuk alahan yang diiktiraf Pertubuhan Alahan Sedunia ialah sebarang tindak balas hiper sensitif terhadap susu.

Ia terbahagi dua iaitu CMPA dan tidak toleransi laktosa. Kedua-dua keadaan ini amat berbeza sama sekali.

Dr Amir Hamzah berkata, tidak toleransi laktosa ialah ketidakupayaan untuk menghadam laktosa disebabkan kekurangan enzim laktase manakala CMPA pula ditakrifkan sebagai tindak balas alahan hiper sensitif terhadap protein susu lembu.

“Kebanyakan ibu bapa ada kalanya membuat penilaian sendiri apabila anak mengalami alahan dan membuat keputusan memberikan rawatan dengan cara masing-masing.

“Tetapi ia boleh membahayakan nyawa anak sekiranya bahan digunakan mengakibatkan reaksi alahan yang lebih teruk,” katanya.

Menurut kajian membabitkan 807 kanak-kanak yang mengalami alahan protein susu lembu, satu pertiga daripadanya berlarutan sehingga remaja dengan 12 peratus mengalami alahan susu lembu sehingga usia 18 tahun.

Dr Chai berkata, ibu bapa perlu mendapatkan pengesahan mengenai alahan dialami anak dan bukan mengambil sikap bersahaja dan membuat langkah pencegahan dengan hanya menukar susu formula digunakan.

Alahan terhadap protein susu lembu ini bukan masalah buat seumur hidup kerana ia akan hilang dengan sendirinya, namun masih ada sebilangan kecil individu yang berterusan mengalaminya tetapi jumlahnya sedikit.

Disebabkan itu, kesedaran dan pengetahuan ibu bapa penting dalam menangani masalah ini begitu juga dengan pegawai kesihatan profesional.

“Mereka perlu mengetahui dan boleh membuat penilaian terbaik terhadap kesan alahan dialami kanak-kanak berkenaan bagi menentukan sama ada keadaan terbabit adalah CMPA atau sebaliknya.

“Reaksi dialami berkemungkinan sama dengan masalah alahan lain, tetapi ada cara bagi menentukan masalah itu dengan sebaik mungkin. Apa yang penting, mereka perlu peka dan fokus serta bertanggungjawab,” katanya.

Antara reaksi dikesan pada kanak-kanak yang mengalami alahan protein susu lembu

Reaksi segera – Ia boleh berlaku beberapa minit selepas meminum susu dan bermula dengan keradangan kulit, masalah penghadaman, keradangan teruk dan berlaku kemungkinan tindak balas alahan lebih teruk iaitu anafilaksis.

Reaksi pertengahan – Pada peringkat ini, ia berlaku antara 45 minit hingga 20 jam selepas meminum susu dan kebiasaannya bayi mengalami muntah dan cirit-birit.

Reaksi lewat – Muncul selepas 24 jam diberi susu dan antara gejala umum ialah cirit-birit, ekzema dan sesak nafas.

Rawatan CMPA

Faktor terpenting adalah menyingkirkan protein susu lembu daripada diet kanak-kanak. Formula gantian tidak diperlukan bagi bayi menyusu badan dan kanak-kanak berusia dua tahun ke atas.

Ibu yang menyusu badan harus meneruskan penyusuan, tetapi perlu berhenti mengambil sebarang protein susu lembu.

Bagi kanak-kanak di bawah usia dua tahun yang tidak menyusu badan, susu lembu boleh digantikan dengan formula gantian. Pilihan utama ialah susu formula yang dinyahhidro.

Harus diingatkan, formula berasaskan soya tidak sesuai bagi kanak-kanak di bawah enam bulan kerana kesan jangka panjang bagi kandungan aluminium dan phytoestrogen yang tinggi tidak diketahui.

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