Kesesakan Cetus Serang Jantung?

KESESAKAN lalu lintas sememangnya tidak dapat dielakkan apatah lagi dengan pertambahan bilangan kenderaan di atas jalan raya.

Berhadapan dengan keadaan ini boleh membuatkan tahap tekanan atau stres anda melonjak.

Selain degupan jantung yang cepat dan badan banyak berpeluh, lain-lain tanda amaran stres termasuklah loya, bernafas kencang, cirit-birit dan terasa hendak membuang air kecil, sejuk kaki dan tangan, berubah selera makan (tidak lalu makan atau makin bertambah), keinginan seks menurun, sakit-sakit badan yang tidak diketahui puncanya, tidak dapat menumpukan perhatian dan gangguan tidur.

Cuba bayangkan setiap hari kita berhadapan dengan kesesakan lalu lintas, tanpa disedari anda mula stres dan simptom-simptom tersebut muncul.

Anda juga bakal berhadapan dengan pembunuh senyap atau kematian mengejut akibat serangan jantung.

Kesesakan lalu lintas mengakibatkan kepekatan karbon monoksida meningkat di udara dan ini menyebabkan otot jantung kekurangan oksigen. Stres atau tekanan perasaan juga menyebabkan kadar denyutan jantung meningkat. Pemandu pula hilang kawalan emosi hingga tercetusnya perasaan marah dan ‘mengamuk’.

Satu kajian baru-baru ini menunjukkan kesesakan lalu lintas mempunyai kaitan dengan risiko serangan jantung.

Penyelidikan yang melibatkan 1,500 kes serangan jantung itu dijalankan oleh sekumpulan penyelidik dari Jerman dan Amerika Syarikat (AS).

Menurut kajian itu, mereka yang berdepan dengan kesesakan trafik tidak kira sama ada pemandu, penumpang, penunggang motosikal atau pengguna pengangkutan awam akan mengalami risiko serangan jantung tiga kali ganda lebih daripada keadaan biasa.

Kebanyakan kes yang diteliti menunjukkan tempoh satu jam pertama kesesakan trafik sudah cukup untuk meningkatkan risiko itu.

Kajian oleh Institut Epidemologi Helmholtz dan Sekolah Kesihatan Awam Universiti Havard itu juga mendapati suku daripada kes yang dipantau melibatkan wanita berusia sekitar 60-an.

Pemandu kereta yang terperangkap dalam kesesakan merupakan kelompok utama yang terdedah kepada serangan jantung.

Dalam konteks ini, keadaan stres sama ada akut atau kronik meningkatkan risiko penyakit jantung. Pada seseorang yang menghidapi penyakit jantung, stres akut boleh mencetuskan serangan jantung (infarksi miokardium).

Stres yang berlarutan atau kronik akan meningkatkan risiko penyakit jantung. Ia merangsang penyakit tekanan darah, dinding saluran darah menebal, merangsang mendapan lemak dan sel darah beku pada dinding saluran darah.

Selain itu, hormon adrenalin yang meningkat menyebabkan kadar degupan jantung turut bertambah, dinding jantung menebal serta merangsang peningkatan insulin yang boleh menebalkan dinding saluran darah.

Tidak ketinggalan peningkatan hormon CRP dan homosistein semasa stres turut menyumbang kepada risiko sakit jantung koronari dan serangan jantung.

“Apabila seseorang stres, ia boleh memberi kesan kepada saluran darah dan meningkatkan aras gula dalam badan. Keadaan ini merupakan risiko kepada serangan jantung hingga boleh menyebabkan kematian mengejut dan kemalangan jalan raya.

Secara amnya, kita melihat ramai yang stres akibat kesesakan lalu lintas. Pendek kata, kita harungi kehidupan moden ini bersama stres, kebimbangan dan kekecewaan yang mana adunannya cukup menekan, menjadi sebahagian daripada rutin seharian.

Bagaimanapun, tekanan luar biasa yang berpanjangan mempunyai kesan-kesan psikologi negatif dan menjejaskan fungsi jantung , sistem penghadaman dan rangka otot.

Justeru itu, setiap orang perlu bijak mengawal perasaan setiap kali berhadapan dengan keadaan yang boleh menyebabkan stres. ”Ia bukan sahaja berpunca daripada keadaan jalan raya, malah masalah kewangan, tempat kerja, keluarga dan sebagainya boleh menyumbang stres,” jelas Pakar Kardiologi Pusat Pakar Perubatan KPJ Tawakkal, Dr. Zul Hilmi Yaakob.

Rokok punca utama

Bercerita lanjut, Dr. Zul Hilmi memberitahu, serangan jantung bukanlah punca utama kemalangan di jalan raya. Secara kebetulan, banyak kes serangan jantung ketika memandu menyebabkan kematian dan kemalangan.

“85 peratus kemalangan jalan raya disebabkan alkohol, pemanduan individu itu sendiri dan menggunakan telefon atau khidmat pesanan ringkas (sms) ketika memandu. Namun, orang ramai perlu bersedia dan berhati-hati sekiranya serangan jantung berlaku sama ada ketika kesesakan lalu lintas atau jalan raya tenang kerana ia bukan sahaja membahayakan diri pemandu tetapi turut membahayakan penumpang lain,” ujarnya.

Kebiasaannya, seseorang yang mendapat serangan jantung tidak akan dibenarkan memandu selama empat minggu.

Berbeza pula kes mereka yang merokok ketika memandu terutamanya untuk bagi perjalanan jarak jauh.

“Keadaan ini banyak berlaku. Ramai pemandu merokok untuk hilangkan mengantuk ketika memandu balik kampung pada musim perayaan atau berhadapan dengan kesesakan lalu lintas. Tidak kurang pula yang merokok kerana stres apabila jalan raya mulai sesak.

”Dalam diam, rokok sebenarnya meningkatkan kolestrol dan serangan jantung mengejut. Justeru itu, amalan ini sebenarnya perlu diubah kerana ia membahayakan pemandu dan penumpangnya,” katanya.

Jika berasa sakit dada ketika memandu, Dr. Zul Hilmi menyarankan berhenti memandu dan segera meminta bantuan penumpang yang lain untuk membawa anda ke hospital. Sebaliknya, sekiranya anda memandu sendiri, segera berhenti daripada memandu kereta.

Di Malaysia, 15 hingga 20 peratus pesakit meninggal dunia selepas mendapat serangan jantung. Berbeza dengan negara maju, kematian hanya lima hingga sembilan peratus.

“Statistik ini disebabkan ramai pesakit lewat datang ke hospital, lewat didiagnosis dan lambat mendapatkan rawatan selepas mendapat serangan jantung secara tiba-tiba.

”Justeru itu, orang ramai yang mendapat sakit dada ketika memandu tidak kira dalam apa jua keadaan lalu lintas, perlu bertindak segera iaitu berjumpa doktor dan membuat pemeriksaan kesihatan,” katanya.

Menyentuh tentang pemandu kenderaan komersial seperti bas, Dr. Zul Hilmi menyaran agar individu yang ingin mendapatkan lesen tersebut perlu menjalani pemeriksaan kesihatan.

Setakat ini katanya, belum ada undang-undang dikuatkuasa untuk memastikan pemandu bas perlu bebas daripada penyakit jantung.

Dalam pada itu, Pusat Pakar Perubatan KPJ Tawakkal yang terletak di Jalan Pahang Barat, Kuala Lumpur mengadakan program khusus sempena Hari Jantung Sedunia 2011 yang berlangsung semalam. Antara aktiviti yang dilakukan adalah ceramah kesihatan berkaitan jantung dan pemeriksaan asas kesihatan secara percuma.

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