Langkah Mudah Elak Jangkitan

Hasil yang besar bermula daripada langkah yang kecil. Demikian juga dalam menangani penularan penyakit berjangkit berbahaya dan boleh menyebabkan maut.

Amalan mencuci tangan adalah satu langkah paling mudah yang boleh kita ambil untuk mengelakkan jangkitan penyakit menerusi penyebaran bakteria, virus dan parasit.

Ini kerana, tangan kita boleh menjadi tempat persembunyian pelbagai jenis mikroorganisma yang menjadi punca penyakit. Jangkitan merebak dari individu ke individu melalui tangan yang tidak dicuci bersih selepas menyentuh permukaan atau memegang peralatan yang tercemar dengan virus daripada batuk atau bersin pesakit.

Menerusi tangan, anggota badan ini cekap memindahkan bakteria dan virus berikutan selepas menyentuh muka terutama mata, hidung atau mulut, mikroorganisma terbabit terus sampai ke pintu masuk badan kita.

Antara penyakit yang tersebar melalui sentuhan seperti Sindrom Pernafasan Akut Teruk (SARS), Sindrom Pernafasan Timur Tengah-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Penyakit Tangan, Kaki dan Mulut (HFMD) dan Demam Virus Influenza A (H1N1).

Sementara itu, HFMD yang kerap menyerang kanak-kanak adalah endemik di Malaysia dan berlaku sepanjang tahun serta mempunyai aliran kitaran dengan kemuncak setiap tiga tahun.

Ketua Pengarah Kesihatan, Datuk Dr Noor Hisham Abdullah berkata, penyakit ini disebabkan oleh beberapa jenis virus dan kebanyakannya adalah ringan ke sederhana, namun jangkitan dengan enterovirus 71 (EV71) boleh menjadi teruk dan seterusnya menyebabkan kematian.

Menurutnya, pada minggu epidimeologi ke-23 bagi tahun ini bermula 5 Jun hingg 11 Jun lalu, bilangan kes HFMD yang dilaporkan di seluruh negara ialah 1,379 kes iaitu peningkatan sebanyak 6.4 peratus berbanding minggu sebelumnya yang mencatat 1,296 kes.

“Trend peningkatan kes HFMD mula dikesan sejak minggu epidimeologi ke-17 pada 24 hingga 30 April lalu apabila 794 kes dicatatkan dan ia melepasi paras amaran yang ditetapkan berdasarkan jumlah kes HFMD pada tahun lalu iaitu 644 kes seminggu.

“Sehubungan itu, pihak kementerian sudahpun mengeluarkan surat Amaran Peningkatan Kes HFMD di Malaysia pada 9 Mei lalu kepada semua Jabatan Kesihatan Negeri (JKN) supaya mempertingkatkan pemantauan dari semasa ke semasa bagi mencegah dan mengawal penularannya.

“Pihak kementerian sentiasa membuat pemantauan bukan sahaja terhadap kejadian kes tetapi juga jenis virus yang berada dalam komuniti,” katanya.

Selangor menyumbangkan jumlah kes tertinggi sehingga kini berbanding negeri lain iaitu 4,441 kes atau 32.6 peratus. Tiga daerah di Selangor yang tinggi bilangan kes adalah Petaling yang mencatat 1,626 kes, Hulu Langat mencatat 1,172 kes dan Klang dengan 618 kes.

Diikuti Johor dengan 1,393 kes (10.2 peratus), Kuala Lumpur mencatat 1,317 kes (9.7 peratus), Sabah mencatat 1,299 kes (9.5 peratus). Sarawak mencatat 1,108 kes (8.1 peratus), Perak mencatat 892 kes (6.5 peratus) dan Melaka dengan 727 kes (5.3 peratus)

Pulau Pinang dengan 713 kes (5.2 peratus), Negeri Sembilan mencatat 522 kes (3.8 peratus), Pahang mencatat 345 kes (2.5 peratus) dan Kedah dengan 265 kes (1.9 peratus), manakala negeri lain melaporkan kurang daripada 200 kes.

Wabak HFMD ditakrifkan apabila ada dua atau lebih kes HFMD dengan gejalanya timbul dalam tempoh dua minggu di lokaliti yang sama.

Sehingga minggu epidiologi ke-23 tahun ini, Selangor mencatatkan bilangan kejadian wabak tertinggi dengan 135 wabak berbanding negeri lain, diikuti Sarawak (116 wabak), Kuala Lumpur (58 wabak) Johor (49 wabak), Melaka (39 wabak), Perak (26 wabak) dan Negeri Sembilan (20 wabak), manakala negeri lain kurang daripada 20 wabak.

Dr Noor Hisham berkata, HFMD disebabkan oleh enterovirus dengan majoriti adalah disebabkan oleh Coxsackie Virus A16 dan Enterovirus 71 (EV 71).

“Virus ini merebak secara sentuhan dengan air liur, cecair lepuh (blister) dan najis mereka yang berpenyakit, manakala tempoh inkubasi adalah antara tiga hingga lima hari.

“Kebiasaan jangkitan adalah ringan dengan gejala demam, diikuti ruam melepuh pada tangan, kaki, mulut dan lidah. Hampir keseluruhan pesakit yang menghidap penyakit HFMD pulih tanpa rawatan perubatan dalam masa tujuh hingga 10 hari.

“Pesakit kanak-kanak juga boleh mengalami gejala jangkitan saluran pernafasan, muntah, cirit-birit dan kurang selera makan. Jangkitan EV71 boleh menyebabkan komplikasi teruk seperti encephalitis, pulmonary edema dan myocarditis, tetapi ianya jarang berlaku,” katanya.

Beliau berkata, penyakit ini cepat menular dengan kadar hampir 100 peratus dalam kalangan kanak-kanak berusia kurang 10 tahun terutama yang ditinggalkan di premis tempat tumpuan kanak-kanak seperti di taska atau tadika.

“Oleh itu, pihak kementerian menasihatkan ibu bapa atau penjaga kanak-kanak yang mempunyai tanda-tanda jangkitan supaya mengamalkan langkah-langkah pencegahan yang digariskan.

“Pengusaha taska, tadika atau pusat jagaan kanak-kanak lain disarankan supaya mengambil langkah pencegahan ditetapkan. Di samping itu, saringan di pintu masuk perlu dilakukan bagi memastikan tiada tanda-tanda jangkitan HFMD sebelum kanak-kanak dibenarkan memasuki premis.

“Langkah pencegahan adalah penting bagi mengelakkan peningkatan kes pada tahun ini. Pihak kementerian sentiasa memantau kejadian penyakit HFMD di seluruh negara dan mengambil tindakan kawalan dan pencegahan,” katanya.

HFMD adalah penyakit berjangkit yang perlu dinotifikasi mengikut Akta Pencegahan dan Pengawalan Penyakit Berjangkit 1988 (Akta 342). Pengamal Perubatan dan orang ramai boleh melaporkan kejadian kes HFMD di premis seperti taska, tadika atau sekolah ke Pejabat Kesihatan Daerah yang berhampiran.

Langkah Pencegahan HFMD

1. Tidak membawa anak yang dijangkiti ke tempat awam seperti sekolah, taska, tadika atau pusat asuhan kerana boleh merebakkan jangkitan.

2. Membawa anak yang mempunyai tanda jangkitan berjumpa doktor untuk mendapatkan rawatan.

3. Mengamalkan kebersihan dengan mencuci tangan dengan sabun dan air bersih selepas ke tandas, selepas menukar lampin, selepas menyentuh atau merawat lepuh dan semasa mencuci najis kanak-kanak yang dijangkiti.

4. Membersihkan dengan cara basmi kuman menggunakan larutan berasaskan klorin semua permainan kanak-kanak dan lantai rumah terutama tandas.

5. Memastikan pembuangan lampin pakai buang dibuat dengan betul.

6. Menggunakan peralatan makan dan minum yang berasingan dan tidak berkongsi barangan dengan kanak-kanak lain yang tidak dijangkiti.

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