Merokok Jejas Kesihatan Bayi

Soalan: Saya mempunyai seorang adik ipar wanita yang merokok. Ketika ini dia sedang mengandung tetapi masih lagi merokok? Apakah kesan merokok kepada dirinya dan bayi yang dikandungkan?

Insan simpati, Johor.

Syabas. Anda adalah seorang wanita yang amat prihatin. Isu peningkatan wanita merokok kembali menjadi topik hangat.

Pelbagai faktor menjadi punca dan penyebab kepada pertambahan golongan hawa ini merokok. Faktor fizikal merupakan penyebab utama. Alasannya yang tidak munasabah di kalangan wanita yang menganggap bahawa merokok dapat mengurangkan berat badan. Ada antara mereka percaya bahawa merokok juga boleh mengawal selera makan.

Selain itu, faktor psikologi yang dikaitkan dengan merokok ialah dapat menangani perasaan rendah diri dengan cara mengasingkan diri dari orang ramai dan menjadikan rokok sebagai teman di kala diri gundah gulana. Manakala faktor lain pula ialah faktor persekitaran dan sosial. Golongan muda lebih terpengaruh dengan pengaruh luar dan rakan sebaya yang menyumbang untuk merokok.

Ada juga yang mengikut arus semasa yang berpendapat golongan wanita hari ini mempunyai persamaan taraf dengan golongan lelaki. Mereka percaya dengan merokok, taraf mereka sama dengan golongan lelaki. Bagi mereka, adalah menjadi suatu kebanggaan dan kehebatan jika seseorang wanita boleh melakukan apa sahaja yang dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki.

Merokok bukan sahaja memberi kesan yang buruk kepada wanita itu sendiri. Malahan ia juga dapat memudaratkan bayi yang dikandung. Kepentingan gaya hidup ibu-ibu yang hamil seperti merokok tidak boleh dipandang remeh. Wanita hamil yang merokok lebih banyak melahirkan bayi yang meninggal dunia bila dibandingkan dengan wanita hamil yang bukan perokok. Seandainya bayi itu lahir normal, maka bayi wanita perokok lebih sering meninggal pada bulan-bulan pertama kehidupannya. Dalam daun tembakau umumnya terdapat 1-3 peratus dadah nikotin. Bayangkanlah apa yang mampu dilakukan oleh nikotin terhadap janin. Asap daripada setiap batang rokok mengandungi tar asapdan apabila meluap mengandungi pelbagai bahan kimia, termasuk sesetengah yang menyebabkan penyakit kanser. Nikotin akan menyebabkan ketagihan dan karbon monoksida sejenis gas yang mampu membunuh dengan mengurangkan keupayaan darah membawa oksigen.

Tambahan lagi, nikotin juga boleh berpindah kepada bayi secara langsung melalui susu badan. Bahaya merokok boleh memberi kesan kepada pertumbuhan janin disebabkan oleh penurunan aliran darah ke dalam plasenta, peningkatan kadar kematian janin (semasa peringkat perinatal), kecacatan kepada bayi seperti kecacatan kepada bibir dan lelangit (cleft lip dan palate), peningkatan risiko untuk mengalami sawan, kelahiran sebelum tempoh matang (atau tidak cukup bulan), keguguran, penurunan berat badan bayi sebanyak 150-200 gram dan perkembangan sistem saraf yang tidak normal. Bayi juga berisiko tinggi untuk mendapat asma dan sindrom kematian bayi mengejut (cot death). Kesemua risiko di atas lebih besar kemungkinan berlaku ke atas wanita atau ibu yang merokok berbanding dengan yang tidak merokok. Alangkah tidak adilnya jika wanita yang merokok yang memilih untuk menderita juga ‘mendera’ bayi dalam kandungannya. Jika bayi ini terus hidup, tempoh penderitaan bayi tersebut mungkin akan berpanjangan.

Sebarang soalan boleh e-mel ke kesihatan@utusan.com.my.

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