Obesiti Dan Bau Badan

Personaliti dan kebersihan diri individu sering diukur menerusi penampilan yang kemas serta aroma tubuh menyenangkan.

Selain menarik perhatian individu lain menerusi deria mata yang melihat, rasa sensitif dan kepekaan deria hidung memainkan peranan penting bagi memastikan kehadiran kita mampu diterima sebaiknya.

Masalah bau badan atau saintifiknya, bromhidrosis, bukanlah isu kesihatan dan kebersihan yang luar biasa dalam kalangan masyarakat.

Disifatkan sebagai penyakit kronik, masalah bau badan ini terjadi akibat pengeluaran keringat berlebihan atau hiperhidrosis yang dihasilkan dua kelenjar berbeza pada kulit di seluruh manusia, kelenjar ekrin dan apokrin seterusnya menggalakkan aktiviti bakteria.

Pakar Perunding Obstetrik dan Ginekologi, Dr Sharifah Halimah Jaafar berkata, dua jenis kelenjar pada kulit tubuh manusia membentuk kepada dua masalah bau badan, bromhidrosis ekrin dan bromhidrosis apokrin.

“Kelenjar ekrin biasanya mengeluarkan peluh yang masin ke permukaan kulit dan ia tidak berbau, manakala kepadatan kelenjar apokrin pula tertumpu pada bahagian tertentu seperti ketiak, celah paha (perineum), kemaluan dan kulit kepala yang merembeskan cecair berminyak dan sebum, juga biasanya tidak berbau.

“Bauan daripada masalah bromhidrosis ekrin terjadi apabila rembesannya melembutkan keratin kulit yang membolehkan bakteria memecahkan keratin yang menyebabkan bauan busuk.

“Selain itu, pengambilan makanan seperti bawang putih, bawang merah, kari, alkohol, nikotin dan kopi secara berlebihan turut menggalakkan penghasilan peluh dari kelenjar ekrin sehingga mengeluarkan bauan tidak menyenangkan dengan lebih kuat.

“Manakala, hiperhidrosis oleh kelenjar apokrin yang melembapkan bahagian kulit yang menggalakkan lagi pertumbuhan bakteria di kawasan berkenaan.

“Sebum dan hasil rembesan secara luar biasa ini akan menambah aktiviti pemecahan oleh bakteria sekali gus membentuk gas ammonia, asid butirik dan formik yang menghasilkan bauan tidak menyenangkan berpunca daripada bahagian badan itu,” jelasnya.

Berbanding anggota tubuh lain, beliau turut mengakui bahagian ketiak, celah paha, kemaluan dan kulit kepala sering dikaitkan dengan masalah bromhidrosis kerana ia memiliki kepadatan kelenjar apokrin dan bakteria kulit yang lebih tinggi.

Jelasnya, faktor kepadatan kelenjar di bahagian berkenaan mendorong kepada masalah bau badan kerana semakin tinggi kepadatannya, maka makin tinggi kadar rembesan keringat masin dan sebum di kawasan badan itu.

“Kelembapan dan pertambahan bakteria akibat bromhidrosis apokrin membuatkan pola atau pergerakan mikroflora di kulit turut berubah ke arah kawasan yang mengandungi sumber makanan yang lebih banyak.

“Mikro organisma ini melakukan proses pemecahan sebum yang menghasilkan gas ammonia dan asid pendek (asid butirik dan formik) yang mengeluarkan aroma busuk dan tidak menyenangkan.

“Aroma tidak menyenangkan ini juga berbeza akibat dipengaruhi pemakanan, kepadatan dan kehadiran bakteria luar biasa serta masalah kesihatan lain.

“Berdasarkan kajian menunjukkan bau badan berkait rapat dengan corak genetik seseorang yang menentukan kepadatan kelenjar apokrin. Faktor usia muda turut mendorong pengeluaran rembesan kelenjar apokrin yang aktif.

“Berbanding wanita, lelaki mempunyai hormon testosteron yang lazimnya menghasilkan bau lebih maskulin manakala hormon estrogen pula memberi bauan manis daripada tubuh wanita,” katanya.

Masalah bau badan sering dikaitkan dengan kegemukan, adakah ia benar?

Menurut Dr Sharifah Halimah, masalah bau badan ini tidak terhad kepada individu yang mengalami obesiti saja namun mereka memiliki kecenderungan lebih tinggi untuk menghidapi isu hiperhidrosis dan bromhidrosis.

Jelasnya, obesiti berkait rapat dengan masalah hormon androgen dalaman yang mempengaruhi aktiviti dua jenis kelenjar berkenaan serta populasi mikro organisma pada permukaan kulit.

Katanya, terdapat beberapa penyakit yang dikategorikan sebagai penyumbang masalah bromhidrosis seperti kencing manis, sindrom metabolik, gangguan fungsi ginjal, kegagalan fungsi hati, trichomycosis axillaris (jangkitan di bahagian ketiak) dan erythrasma (penyakit kulit).

Walaupun masalah bau badan tidak boleh dirawat sepenuhnya, tetapi ia boleh dikawal. Antara rawatan disarankan adalah suntikan botox pada kulit yang bermasalah, namun ia hanya berkesan selama empat bulan dan suntikan ini perlu dilakukan secara berulang.

Antara rawatan lain boleh dilakukan ialah pembedahan mengeluarkan kelenjar peluh seperti simpatektomi endoskopik yang menggunakan alatan kecil khas untuk mengeluarkan saraf di dada yang berhubung dengan kelenjar di bawah ketiak. Dikatakan keberkesanan prosedur ini mampu bertahan antara lima hingga 10 tahun.

Rawatan minimal iaitu elektrosurgeri pula dilakukan menggunakan jarum kecil yang membolehkan doktor mengeluarkan kelenjar peluh.

Pembedahan reseksi kulit pula bermula dengan pemotongan di dalam bahagian ketiak bagi memudahkan pakar bedah mengenal pasti kedudukan tepat kelenjar, namun ia meninggalkan parut pada permukaan kulit.

Pada masa sama, penghidap masalah bromhidrosis juga digalakkan melakukan beberapa langkah mudah untuk mengurangkan aktiviti bakteria pada kulit.

Antara saranannya, penggunaan sabun antibakteria berbanding sabun berbau wangi untuk mengawal jumlah bakteria khususnya di bahagian badan tertentu. Selain itu, disarankan juga memilih krim mandian berbanding sabun pepejal.

Bagi mereka yang mempunyai bulu atau rambut berlebihan terutama di bahagian pelipat, digalakkan mencukurnya kerana rambut bertindak memerangkap lebih banyak bakteria dan peluh sekali gus meningkatkan masalah bromhidrosis.

Cuaca yang panas dan gaya hidup aktif membuatkan pakaian cepat diresapi keringat. Oleh kerana masalah bau badan berpunca daripada proses pemecahan sebum oleh bakteria, penghidap bromhidrosis digalakkan menukar pakaian lebih kerap.

Meskipun mandi bukanlah penyelesaian utama bagi masalah bau badan, namun penghidap bromhidrosis dinasihatkan mandi dengan lebih kerap, sekurang-kurangnya dua kali sehari.

Tip kurangkan masalah bau badan:

1. Kurangkan pengambilan sumber makanan yang boleh menggalakkan aktiviti kelenjar peluh apokrin dan ekrin dan merembeskan peluh yang berbau seperti bawang putih, bawang merah, alkohol, kafein, nikotin, merokok dan sebagainya.

2. Cuci selalu bahagian kulit badan yang lembap seperti pelipat, ketiak dan celah paha.

3. Meningkatkan pengambilan probiotik (bakteria kulit yang berguna) supaya ia lebih tinggi kepadatannya dan dapat mendominasi permukaan kulit. Bakteria lactobascilllus mengeluarkan glikogen dan aseton mengeluarkan bau yang menyenangkan di samping mengawal pertumbuhan mikroflora yang tidak sihat.

4. Menggunakan deodoran atau pewangi.

5. Memakai baju jenis kain yang lembut, mempunyai ciri pengudaraan yang baik dan tidak kedap.

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