Pemvaksinan Jimat Kos

TIDAK ramai yang sedar bahawa kemajuan dalam bidang kesihatan mungkin setanding dengan usaha meningkatkan pendapatan dan penjanaan pembangunan sesebuah negara.

Pengalaman pembangunan dalam tempoh separuh abad lalu menunjukkan kesihatan yang baik memacu pertumbuhan ekonomi. Secara tidak langsung, hubungan ini saling melengkapi.

Kesihatan bukan saja faktor utama yang menyumbang kepada kebajikan insan, tetapi juga berperanan sebagai alat untuk meningkatkan tahap pendapatan peribadi dan kesejahteraan negara.

Ini mengukuhkan lagi idea bahawa langkah kesihatan yang diambil boleh menambah baik kesihatan penduduk tanpa meningkatkan pendapatan penduduk terlebih dulu.

Salah satu aspek yang dititikberatkan dalam keperluan kesihatan adalah pemvaksinan. Pemvaksinan sudah diiktiraf oleh komuniti kesihatan global sebagai salah satu daripada langkah kesihatan umum yang paling penting dan berkesan dengan kesan sosio ekonomi positif terhadap masyarakat.

Jelas Pakar Ekonomi Kesihatan dan Dasar, Sekolah Pengurusan Maastricht, Belanda, Dr Edith Maes, terdapat empat cara pelaburan dalam program pelalian boleh menyumbang kepada tahap pertumbuhan ekonomi lebih pesat.

“Peranan pertama pelaburan kesihatan adalah daripada segi produktiviti buruh. Pekerja yang sihat kurang mengambil cuti dan lebih produktif semasa bekerja.”Kedua, ia berkaitan dengan jadual pelalian yang dikemas kini yang mana kesihatan kanak-kanak boleh memberikan kesan langsung terhadap perkembangan kognitif dan keupayaan untuk belajar dalam sistem pendidikan.

“Manfaat ketiga pula berhubung kesan langsung kesihatan terhadap wang simpanan. Ini kerana, jangka hayat yang lebih panjang boleh meningkatkan insentif untuk menabung demi persaraan selain dapat menjana tahap simpanan dan kekayaan yang lebih tinggi. Akhir sekali, tenaga kerja yang sihat mungkin meningkatkan insentif yang dapat menarik pelaburan perniagaan tempatan dan pelaburan asing,” katanya.

Berdasarkan laporan yang dikeluarkan pada 2010, perbelanjaan penjagaan kesihatan Malaysia merangkumi RM33,657 bilion iaitu 4.4 peratus daripada Keluaran Dalam Negara Kasar (KDNK) dengan pembiayaan kerajaan mewakili 55.5 peratus (RM18,684 bilion) dan sektor swasta 44.5 peratus (RM14,973 bilion).

Data terbaru pula menunjukkan kerajaan membelanjakan RM128 juta untuk vaksin pada 2011 yang meliputi 80 peratus daripada semua vaksin lazim. Justeru, bagaimana perbelanjaan ini membawa manfaat kepada ekonomi Malaysia dan kesannya terhadap pembinaan negara?

Pemvaksinan sememangnya diiktiraf secara meluas oleh komuniti kesihatan global sebagai salah satu langkah kesihatan umum paling penting dan menjimatkan kos, di samping memberi kesan sosio ekonomi yang positif terhadap masyarakat.

Manfaat daripada perlindungan yang disediakan menerusi pelalian itu banyak kerana vaksin mengurangkan kesakitan, penderitaan, kehilangan upaya dan kematian disebabkan penyakit, mengurangkan kos rawatan perubatan atau mengurangkan bilangan hari cuti sakit.

Selain itu, pelalian berkumpulan juga boleh melindungi individu terdedah yang belum atau tidak boleh divaksinkan. Keluarga mendapat manfaat apabila pencari nafkah utama mereka sihat dan ahli keluarga tidak perlu mengambil cuti untuk menjaga kanak-kanak yang sakit.

Berlandaskan faktor ini, pemvaksinan menjadi ‘titik hubungan’ dengan sistem kesihatan bagi seisi keluarga yang meliputi pendidikan kesihatan dan pemeriksaan rutin kanak-kanak.

“Berasaskan semua sebab yang diberikan, pembiayaan negara hendaklah diperuntukkan bagi program pelalian seluruh masyarakat kerana untuk mencapai matlamat ekonomi, penduduk negara semestinya perlu sihat terlebih dulu,” kata Dr Edith.

Tetapi, persoalannya kini, bagaimanakah kerajaan boleh membuat keputusan yang betul untuk mengagihkan dana negara?

Ekonomi kesihatan dan penjimatan kos kini menjadi faktor yang semakin penting bagi penggubal dasar yang perlu membuat keputusan untuk menambah vaksin baru ke dalam program semua komuniti kebangsaan.

Dalam tempoh 30 tahun lalu, pembangunan vaksin sudah dipercepatkan kerana kemajuan saintifik dalam bidang bioteknologi, pengekodan gen dan teknologi maklumat.

Hasilnya, pelbagai vaksin baru dihasilkan termasuk bagi menentang penyakit pneumokokal, virus rota, kanser serviks serta jangkitan meningokokus.

Mengulas lanjut mengenai isu ini, Dr Edith berkata, penggubal dasar kini semakin bergantung kepada analisis penjimatan kos di samping keberkesanan klinikal apabila mempertimbangkan langkah memperkenalkan vaksin baru.

“Kami sudah melihat banyak kejayaan dicapai oleh kerajaan yang menggunakan vaksin hepatitis B, pneumokokus dan HIB kanak-kanak.

“Manfaat pemvaksinan sering kali kurang dihargai walaupun vaksin mencegah penyakit dan kematian pada masa depan. Terdapat ciri yang memerlukan pertimbangan khas apabila menilai keberkesanan kosnya.

“Kejayaan sesuatu vaksin sering tidak disedari kerana penyakit lazimnya dihapuskan dengan senyap contohnya polio. Penghargaan terhadap manfaat pemvaksinan penuh berasaskan jadual pelalian terkini memerlukan perspektif kesihatan yang meluas,” katanya.

Jadual pelalian Malaysia termasuk batuk kering, hepatitis B, difteria, tetanus, pertusis, polio, influenza hemofilus jenis B, campak, ensefalitis Jepun, beguk, rubela dan baru-baru ini vaksin HPV.

Vaksin pneumokokus dan virus rota masih belum diwajibkan berbanding negara maju lain. Bagaimanapun, untuk bertukar kepada status negara berpendapatan tinggi, Malaysia perlu membandingkan dirinya dengan negara maju seperti Hong Kong, Amerika Syarikat dan United Kingdom.

Ini kerana, negara berkenaan membuat pelaburan secara strategik dalam bidang penjagaan kesihatan mereka, dengan tumpuan terhadap golongan muda berikutan kumpulan ini adalah faktor kritikal yang menjamin pertumbuhan ekonomi berterusan pada masa depan.

Artikel ini disiarkan pada : 2012/07/15

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