Pengurusan Ekzema Atopik

Ekzema merupakan penyakit kulit yang kerap dialami di seluruh dunia dengan 10 hingga 20 peratus terdiri daripada kanak-kanak dan satu hingga tiga peratus merupakan golongan dewasa. Ekzema atopik atau dermatitis atopic sejenis penyakit radang kulit yang mencetuskan ruam gatal hingga menyebabkan rasa sakit dan resah.

Penyakit kulit ini merupakan jenis ekzema yang paling banyak berlaku tetapi puncanya masih samar. Faktor genetik dan persekitaran dikatakan memainkan peranan dalam berlakunya masalah kulit.

Ia boleh menjangkiti sesiapa saja, namun lebih kerap berlaku pada kanak-kanak.

Penjagaan kulit kanak-kanak yang mengalami ekzema biasanya satu proses berterusan sehingga mereka dewasa.

Bukan setakat rasa gatal, merah dan ruam, penyakit ini juga boleh memberi tekanan emosional dan kesan kewangan bukan sahaja ke atas pesakit tetapi juga ahli keluarga, khususnya penjaga.

“Ekzema atopik satu bentuk alergi atau alahan, di mana ia berpunca daripada sistem kekebalan tubuh (imun) yang tidak normal sehingga membawa kepada kepada kerosakan kulit.

Ia adalah suatu keadaan di mana kulit pesakit khususnya kanak-kanak menjadi gatal dan kering.

Apabila kanak-kanak terasa kulitnya gatal, mereka akan menggaru dan ini merosakkan kulit dan mencetuskan kegatalan semula. Ini menyebabkan kelembapan kulit hilang menyebabkan berlakunya ekzema atopik,” ujar Pakar Runding Pediatrik dan Dermatologi Pediatrik Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Dr. Leong Kin Fon.

Bayi yang berhadapan dengan ekzema atopik akan mengalami keresahan dan sukar untuk tidur.

Akibatnya, penjaga turut mengalami masalah yang sama sehingga menyebabkan tekanan.

Tambah Dr. Kin Fon, di Malaysia sahaja, 12.6 peratus pelajar sekolah menghadapi masalah ekzema berbanding di Indonesia hanya 3.7 peratus. Fenomena ini juga lebih tinggi di Malaysia Timur berbanding di Semenanjung.

Kebimbangan ini juga melibatkan kes ekzema atopik di kalangan kanak-kanak berumur enam hingga tujuh tahun yang meningkat daripada 9.5 peratus kepada 12.6 peratus.

Daripada kes yang berlaku, kulit pesakit atopik ekzema bukan sahaja menjadi kemerah-merahan, tetapi juga bersisik, keras dan tebal terutama di bahagian tangan dan kulit yang berlipat misalnya pada bahagian siku serta lutut.

“Kulit mungkin menjadi keras dan melecet atau bernanah akibat jangkitan bakteria. Jika seorang ahli keluarga mempunyai ekzema, asma atau alahan rinitis (alahan pada debunga), anak mereka ada peluang besar untuk turut mengalaminya.

Sesetengah kanak-kanak yang ada ekzema turut mendapat asma atau alahan rinitis. faktor persekitaran seperti cuaca dan pencemaran juga dikatakan menjadi faktor utama penyakit ini,” katanya ketika kempen kesedaran ekzema atopik anjuran Leo Pharma di Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur.

Dalam pada itu Pakar Dermatologi, Pensyarah Kanan Hospital Hammersmith dan Pakar Kehormat Dermatologi di Kolej Imperial dan Diraja Lepasan Ijazah Sekolah Perubatan, London, Dr. Anthony Chu berharap pesakit berbincang dengan individu yang pakar terutama dalam pengurusan bagi meminimumkan serangan ekzema.

Menggambarkan bayi yang menghidap penyakit ini akan resah dan tidak boleh duduk diam, Dr. Anthony berpendapat ia sesuatu yang serius kerana kesan gatal atau ruam yang digaru itu boleh luka dan berdarah.

Menurut beliau, terdapat dua pilihan rawatan iaitu menggunakan streoid atau kombinasi streoid antibiotik dan krim.

Selain menggunakan pelembap, steroid untuk keradangan dan anti ubat gatal, pesakit boleh mengawal keadaan itu sendiri. Ini termasuk mengurangkan penggunaan cecair pencuci, penghilang bau, kosmetik, debunga dan makanan tertentu.

Dalam pada itu, pesakit-pesakit ekzema tidak disarankan menggunakan sabun atau mandian berbuih pada kulit mereka kerana ia boleh memburukkan lagi keadaan kulit.

Sebaliknya, mereka disarankan menggunakan pembersih dan pelembap yang bukan sahaja berfungsi sebagai pelindung tetapi juga pelembap terutama kulit yang alergi.

Sementara itu, kempen kesedaran ekzema atopik (bersatu menentang rasa gatal ( itch ) yang dijalankan dengan sokongan Leo Pharma ini, bertujuan meningkatkan kesedaran kepada masyarakat mengenai penyakit tersebut.

Berikut beberapa langkah yang boleh diambil oleh ibu bapa yang mempunyai anak bermasalah ekzema:

* Bawa anak berjumpa doktor

* Pastikan mereka mandi dengan sabun khas yang berkelembapan tinggi tanpa bahan kimia yang mengeringkan kulit.

* Sapu pelembap di seluruh badan selepas mandi.

* Pakai pakaian yang nipis dan diperbuat daripada fabrik kapas.

* Pastikan persekitaran rumah bersih dan bebas dari habuk dan kotoran.

* Jika anak berpeluh ambil kain basah dan lap di tempat yang berpeluh.

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