Penurunan Kadar Estrogen

Vagina kering adalah masalah umum yang dialami wanita terutama mereka yang sedang menempuh fasa menopaus. Namun, dalam keadaan tertentu masalah vagina atau faraj kering turut dialami wanita muda.

Lazimnya, dinding vagina diselaputi lendir jernih yang bertindak sebagai pelincir. Hormon seks seperti estrogen membantu mengekalkan cecair berkenaan dan memastikan lapisan vagina sentiasa sihat, tebal dan elastik.

Ketika menopaus, penurunan kadar estrogen mengurangkan bilangan lembapan sedia ada dan menjadikan vagina menipis serta kurang elastik. Namun, penurunan hormon ini juga boleh berlaku disebabkan melahirkan anak, menyusu badan, rawatan radiasi atau kemoterapi, pembedahan membuang ovari dan penggunaan ubatan antiestrogen bagi merawat fibroid dalam rahim atau endometriosis.

Punca lain bagi masalah vagina kering juga boleh disebabkan oleh gangguan autoimun yang menyerang sel yang menghasilkan kelembapan dalam badan, alahan, kerap mencuci faraj dengan sabun atau bahan tertentu dan diabetes.

Menurut Perunding Pakar Ginekologi dan Reproduktif Pusat Pakar Wanita OBGYN Dr Sharad Ratna, wanita yang mengalami masalah kekeringan vagina akan mendapat simptom seperti pedih, gatal-gatal, rengsa, sakit ketika hubungan seks (dyspareunia), kerap kencing dan mudah mendapat jangkitan saluran kencing.

“Faktor penurunan kadar estrogen mempengaruhi hampir semua masalah vagina kering. Ini kerana, estrogen adalah hormon wanita yang berfungsi supaya vagina kekal sihat, membekalkan bahan pelincir semula jadi, memberikan keanjalan dan kadar keasidan.

“Oleh itu, kadar estrogen yang menurun mengganggu fungsinya dan menyebabkan berlaku ciri-ciri vagina atrofi. Selain pertambahan usia, kadar estrogen juga boleh menurun akibat mengamalkan gaya hidup yang tidak sihat seperti merokok dan pengambilan alkohol serta mengalami tekanan atau kemurungan.

Beliau berkata demikian pada sesi dialog Wanita Malaysia Menderita Secara Senyap anjuran jenama krim pelembap untuk vagina, Vagisan, di ibu negara, baru-baru ini.

Menerusi kajian dijalankan syarikat farmaseutikal dari Jerman, Dr August Wolff Gmbh & Co, terhadap wanita di negara ini mendapati masalah kekeringan vagina mempengaruhi kualiti hidup mereka.

Dua pertiga daripada responden mengalami impak fizikal dan emosi apabila mencatat 73 peratus bagi tekanan emosi, 72 peratus emosi tidak stabil, manakala 62 peratus mengalami keletihan melampau akibat daripada keadaan ini.

Setiap seorang daripada dua responden pula didapati mengalami masalah kualiti ikatan perhubungan dengan pasangan masing-masing iaitu sebanyak 69 peratus, kurang keyakinan (55 peratus) dan masalah kesihatan secara kesuluruhan (55 peratus).

Kajian yang sama juga mendedahkan bahawa tiga daripada lima responden yang mengalami masalah kekeringan vagina mendapatkan rawatan iaitu sebanyak 58 peratus. Tiga kaedah rawatan yang paling lazim digunakan adalah produk pembersih dalaman wanita (31 peratus), pelincir berubat (20 peratus) dan gel berubat (16 peratus).

Malangnya, penggunaan produk terbabit boleh memudaratkan masalah kekeringan vagina kerana faktor kekurangan pelembab kulit. Kajian ini juga mendapati hanya 10 peratus responden berpuas hati dengan kaedah rawatan yang mereka guna selama ini.

Dr Sharad berkata, ramai wanita tidak sedar mereka mengalami masalah kekeringan vagina dan kurang pengetahuan mengenai impak masalah ini dalam kehidupan mereka tanpa mengambil kira faktor umur.

“Kesihatan bahagian intim wanita masih dianggap pantang dalam kalangan wanita pelbagai usia di negara ini. Oleh itu, perbincangan terbuka mengenai perihal masalah kekeringan vagina dan kaedah perawatan yang sesuai dapat membantu mempertingkatkan kualiti hidup wanita Malaysia,” katanya.

Sementara itu, Penasihat Ginekologi Dr August Wolff Gmbh & Co Dr Iris Schmidtts Winkler berkata, masalah kekeringan vagina dialami ramai wanita, tetapi hanya sedikit yang mendapatkan rawatan doktor.

“Memang masalah kekeringan vagina menjejaskan kebanyakan wanita, walaupun mereka selalunya tidak mengetengahkan isu ini ketika menemui doktor.

“Namun, jika masalah ini menjejaskan kualiti hidup terutama dalam hubungan bersama pasangan, pertimbangkan untuk bincangkan dengan doktor,” katanya.

Dr Iris berkata, bagi kebanyakan wanita rumusan berasaskan gel yang sering digunakan untuk merawat vagina kering didapati tidak sesuai kerana faktor kekurangan kesan lipid yang memberi kelembapan dan kelegaan pada kulit.

Malah, beliau turut menegur sikap segelintir wanita yang mengambil jalan mudah mengatasi masalah vagina kering apabila kerap mencuci bahagian keintiman dengan produk pencuci bersabun.

“Mereka menggunakan pencuci dengan haruman, buih mandian atau deodoran yang menghilangkan bau. Sebenarnya, ia tidak digalakkan kerana lebih cenderung mengundang bakteria vagina berikutan amalan terbabit menghilangkan bakteria pelindung semula jadi.

“Tambah lagi, kebanyakan produk mencuci alat sulit sedemikian juga tidak dirumus untuk digunakan di bahagian dalaman sekali gus merawat masalah vagina kering. Penggunaan produk pencuci alat sulit ini disyorkan sekali sehari kerana memadai menggunakan air biasa untuk cucian kerap.

“Malah, ada juga segelintir wanita yang menggunakan krim pelembap kulit biasa bagi merawat kekeringan vagina dan ia adalah salah. Tidak kurang juga yang menggunakan minyak pati, tetapi ia masih tidak merawat masalah utama kerana minyak ini lebih sesuai dipakai pada kawasan luaran vagina. Malah, segelintir minyak pati juga mempunyai elemen alahan,” katanya.

Katanya, hasil penyelidikan mendapati Vagisan adalah krim pelembap tanpa hormon pertama yang terbukti mampu merawat dan mengurangkan kerengsaan akibat masalah kekeringan vagina. Ia mempunyai ciri-ciri dwiimpak yang bukan sekadar melembabkan malah juga melegakan kerengsaan.

“Kami mahu semua wanita tahu bahawa ada bantuan untuk masalah mereka. Krim pelembap ini adalah produk yang baik untuk merawat masalah kekeringan faraj kerana ia boleh digunakan tanpa sebarang kesan sampingan terhadap produk kesihatan yang lain.

“Ia juga tidak membawa sebarang gangguan hormon dan sesuai digunakan di dalam dan bahagian luar vagina. Menerusi kajian klinikal dijalankan kami terhadap 92 responden dengan masalah vagina kering mendapati krim ini terbukti berkesan dan rawatan yang unggul mengatasi krim lain,” katanya.

Ahli Farmasi dari Persatuan Farmaseutikal Malaysia (MPS), Yip Sook Ying berkata, kebanyakan wanita dengan masalah vagina kering datang ke farmasi bagi mendapatkan ubat untuk merawat gatal-gatal atau pedih tanpa menyedari ia adalah tanda-tanda kekeringan vagina dan menyebabkan mereka menggunakan ubatan yang tidak sesuai.

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