Penyakit Gagal Jantung Pembunuh No 1

Penyakit Gagal Jantung yang dalam istilah medisnya disebut dengan “Heart Failure atau Cardiac Failure”, merupakan suatu keadaan darurat medis dimana jumlah darah yang dipompa oleh jantung seseorang setiap menitnya {curah jantung (cardiac output)} tidak mampu memenuhi kebutuhan normal metabolisme tubuh.

Dampak dari gagal jantung secara cepat berpengaruh terhadap kekurangan penyediaan darah, sehingga menyebabkan kematian sel akibat kekurangan oksigen yand dibawa dalam darah itu sendiri. Kurangnya suplay oksigen ke otak (Cerebral Hypoxia), menyebabkan seseorang kehilangan kesadaran dan berhenti bernafas dengan tiba-tiba yang berujung pada kematian.

Gagal jantung kongestif pada bayi dan anak merupakan kegawatdaruratan yang sangat sering dijumpai oleh petugas kesehatan dimanapun berada. Keluhan dan gejala sangat bervariasi sehingga sering sulit dibedakan dengan akibat penyakit lain di luar jantung.

Kondisi pada penyakit gagal jantung bukanlah berarti bahwa jantung stop bekerja (cardiac arrest), melainkan jantung tidak lagi mampu memompakan darah sebagaimana tugasnya sehari-hari bagi tubuh seseorang.

  • Klasifikasi Penyakit Gagal Jantung
  • Ruang Jantung terbagi atas empat ruang yaitu Serambi kanan dan serambi kiri yang dipisahkan oleh septum intratrial, kemudian Bilik kanan dan bilik kiri yang dipisahkan oleh septum interventrikular.

    Gagal jantung dapat terjadi pada salah satu sisi bagian jantung, misalnya gagal jantung bagian sisi kiri atau gagal jantung bagian sisi kanan saja.

  • Penyebab Penyakit Gagal Jantung
  • Gagal jantung dapat disebabkan oleh gangguan primer otot jantung itu sendiri atau beban jantung yang berlebihan ataupun kombinasi keduanya. Secara garis besar, faktor kemungkinan yang menyebabkan penyakit gagal jantung adalah orang-orang yang memiliki penyakit hipertenisi, hiperkolesterolemia (kolesterol tinggi), perokok, diabetes (kencing manis), obesitas (kegemukan) dan seseorang yang memiliki riwayat keluarga penyakit jantung serta tentunya pola hidup yang tidak teratur dan kurang ber-olah raga.

  • Tanda dan Gejala Penyakit Gagal Jantung
  • Tanda serta gejala penyakit gagal jantung dapat dibedakan berdasarkan bagian mana dari jantung itu yang mengalami gangguan pemompaan darah, lebih jelasnya sebagai berikut :

    1. Gagal jantung sebelah kiri ; menyebabkan pengumpulan cairan di dalam paru-paru (edema pulmoner), yang menyebabkan sesak nafas yang hebat. Pada awalnya sesak nafas hanya dirasakan saat seseorang melakukan aktivitas, tetapi sejalan dengan memburuknya penyakit maka sesak nafas juga akan timbul pada saat penderita tidak melakukan aktivitas. Sedangkan tanda lainnya adalah cepat letih (fatigue), gelisah/cemas (anxity), detak jantung cepat (tachycardia), batuk-batuk serta irama degub jantung tidak teratur (Arrhythmia).
    2. Sedangkan Gagal jantung sebelah kanan ; cenderung mengakibatkan pengumpulan darah yang mengalir ke bagian kanan jantung. Sehingga hal ini menyebabkan pembengkakan di kaki, pergelangan kaki, tungkai, perut (ascites) dan hati (hepatomegaly). Tanda lainnya adalah mual, muntah, keletihan, detak jantung cepat serta sering buang air kecil (urin) dimalam hari (Nocturia).

  • Diagnosa Penyakit Gagal Jantung
  • Biasanya, diagnosa ditegakkan berdasarkan tanda dan gejala yang dikeluhkan ataupun yang terlihat langsung saat dilakukan pemeriksaan. Untuk memperkuat diagnosa, dokter akan melakukan berbagai pemeriksaan, misalnya ;

    1. Pemeriksaan fisik, adanya denyut nadi yang lemah dan cepat, tekanan darah menurun, bunyi jantung abnormal, pembesaran jantung, pembengkakan vena leher, cairan di dalam paru-paru, pembesaran hati, penambahan berat badan yang cepat, pembengkakan perut atau tungkai.
    2. Pemeriksaan Rontgen atau X-ray (ronsen), pada bagian dada bisa menunjukkan adanya pembesaran jantung dan pengumpulan cairan di dalam paru-paru.
    3. Pemeriksaan ekokardiografi (menggunakan gelombang suara untuk menggambarkan jantung) dan elektrokardiografi (menilai aktivitas listrik dari jantung).

  • Pengobatan Penyakit Gagal Jantung
  • Dalam penatalaksanaan atau perawatan pasien dengan kasus penyakit gagal jantung, ada tiga hal mendasar yang menjadi acuan, diantaranya ; Pengobatan terhadap Gagal jantung sendiri, Pengobatan terhadap penyakit yang mendasari dan Pengobatan terhadap faktor pencetus.
    Termasuk dalam pengobatan medikamentosa yaitu mengurangi retensi cairan dan garam, meningkatkan kontraktilitas dan mengurangi beban jantung. Sedangkan penanganan secara umum meliputi istirahat, pengaturan suhu dan kelembaban, oksigen, pemberian cairan dan diet.

    Pemberian obat-obatan, seperti obat inotropik (digitalis, obat inotropik intravena), obat vasodilator (arteriolar dilator : hidralazin), venodilator (nitrat, nitrogliserin), mixed dilator (prazosin, kaptopril, nitroprusid), diuretik serta obat-obatan disritmia.

    Tindakan pembedahan, hal ini biasanya dilakukan untuk mengatasi penyakit jantung bawaan (paliatif, korektif) dan penyakit jantung didapat (valvuloplasti, penggantian katup).

  • Pencegahan Penyakit Gagal jantung
  • Bagi Anda yang merasakan adanya tanda dan gejala seperti yang disebutkan diatas, sebaiknya segera memeriksaakan diri ke dokter. Mengurangi faktor yang dapat menyebabkan kondisi gagal jantung, berhenti merokok, kurangi konsumsi makanan berlemak, upayakan melakukan olah raga, pola atau haya hidup yang teratur.

    Tentunya bagi mereka yang mengalami atau menderita penyakit yang dapat berakibat menimbulkan serangan gagal jantung sebaiknya rutin meng-kontrolkan diri ke dokter, misalnya penderita darah tinggi (Hypertension), kencing manis (Diabetes), penumpukan plak (kolesterol atau lainnya) pada pembuluh darah jantung (Coronary Artery Disease).

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