Penyebab Utama Kematian

Semua orang tahu merokok membawa keburukan terhadap kesihatan. Sudah berulang kali dihebahkan mengenai bahaya merokok, antaranya meningkatkan risiko hampir semua jenis kanser khususnya kanser paru-paru, namun masih ramai yang berdegil.Ramai yang menyedari keburukan merokok, namun mereka tidak ambil endah mengenai risikonya kerana lebih mementingkan ketagihan dengan merokok.

Menurut portal rasmi MyHealth Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia, kanser paru-paru adalah salah satu penyebab utama kematian di Malaysia.

Pada 2007, secara keseluruhan ia kanser ketiga selepas kanser payudara dan kanser kolorektal. Dalam kalangan lelaki, ia menduduki tempat pertama dan tempat kelima pada wanita.

Sebanyak 2,948 kanser paru-paru dilaporkan pada 2006 (1,445 lelaki dan 603 wanita). Walaupun kadar hidup setelah didiagnosa dengan kanser paru-paru pada peringkat awal adalah 49 peratus, hanya kira-kira dua peratus saja penghidap kanser yang merebak ke bahagian lain di dalam badan masih hidup selepas lima tahun tahun.

Menurut Pakar Perunding Perubatan Dalaman dan Dada Pusat Perubatan Tropicana, Dr Mohammed Fauzi Abdul Rani, laporan Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) menunjukkan kanser paru-paru membunuh 1.3 juta pesakit di seluruh dunia.

“Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia melaporkan 12 peratus daripada kes kematian disebabkan kanser dan 40,000 pesakit kanser baru didiagnosa setiap tahun menjadikan kos perbelanjaan untuk membeli ubat setiap tahun kira-kira RM100 juta.

“Justeru, pencegahan terhadap punca utamanya iaitu merokok perlu dilakukan sejak awal. Walaupun sudah didedahkan dengan pelbagai medium mengenai bahaya merokok, ia tetap tidak diendahkan,” katanya.

Tambahnya, 90 peratus punca kanser paru-paru yang utama adalah rokok, tidak kira sama ada mereka perokok aktif atau pasif.

Penyelidikan sejak 1950-an menunjukkan dengan jelas kaitan rokok dan kanser paru-paru. Asap rokok mengandungi lebih daripada 4,000 bahan kimia, kebanyakannya dikenal pasti penyebab kanser paru-paru.

Selain itu, menghisap 20 batang rokok sehari berisiko 20 hingga 25 kali ganda mendapat kanser paru-paru jika dibandingkan dengan mereka yang tidak merokok.

Apabila seseorang berhenti merokok, risiko mendapat kanser paru-paru beransur kurang. Lebih kurang selepas 15 tahun berhenti merokok, risiko mendapat kanser paru-paru berkurangan sama seperti seseorang yang tidak pernah merokok.

Malah menghisap curut serta paip juga meningkatkan risiko menghidap kanser paru-paru. Selain rokok, 10 hingga 15 peratus kanser paru-paru berpunca daripada sebab lain. Antaranya:

> Pencemaran udara seperti daripada asap kereta, kilang dan lain-lain.

> Pendedahan kepada asbestos memberi risiko mendapat kanser paru-paru sebanyak sembilan kali ganda. Gabungan antara asap rokok dan asbestos meningkatkan risiko setinggi 50 kali ganda. Mesothelioma (kanser yang asalnya daripada selaput paru-paru) berkait rapat dengan pendedahan kepada asbestos.

> Penyakit paru-paru seperti tuberkulosis (batuk kering) dan penyakit sekatan pulmonari kronik (COPD) meningkatkan risiko untuk mendapat kanser paru-paru.

> Pendedahan kepada radon (radium) iaitu bahan yang terjadi daripada uranium. Pekerjaan yang terdedah kepada arsenik, kromium, nikel, hidrokarban aromatik dan eter.

Kanser paru-paru dibahagi kepada dua kumpulan besar (bergantung kepada jenis sel) iaitu kanser paru-paru bukan sel kecil (NSCLC) dan kanser paru-paru sel kecil (SCLC).

“NSCLC adalah jenis barah paling kerap ditemui dan boleh dibahagikan kepada beberapa jenis sel iaitu adenocarcinoma (30 hingga 40 peratus), sel carcinoma (30 peratus) dan carcinoma bersel besar (10 peratus).

“Carcinoma kerap ditemui pada lelaki yang dikaitkan dengan tabiat merokok dan ditemui pada tiub dalam paru-paru manakala adenocarcinoma banyak didapati dalam kalangan wanita dan bukan perokok.

“Lebih 80 peratus pesakit mengalami simptom sukar bernafas, batuk, sakit dada dan kurang selera makan apabila diserang NSCLC,” katanya.

Jenis kanser yang pertama itu lebih umum meliputi kira-kira 85 peratus daripada semua kanser paru-paru, manakala baki 15 peratus (kurang satu dalam lima kes) adalah kanser paru-paru sel kecil.

Kanser SCLC biasanya disebabkan tabiat merokok dan jarang bagi seseorang yang tidak pernah merokok mengalami kanser ini.

Ia satu bentuk kanser paru-paru agresif yang pantas berkembang dan boleh merebak dengan cepat ke seluruh badan ketika didiagnosa.

Tambahnya, buat masa ini tiada cara kos efektif yang boleh mengesan kanser paru-paru pada peringkat awal dan pesakit biasanya datang pada peringkat yang lewat.

Justeru, pencegahan paling berkesan adalah tidak mendedahkan diri kepada asap rokok sama ada merokok secara aktif atau pasif.

Bagi perokok, dinasihatkan supaya berhenti merokok selain mengelakkan pendedahan terhadap sebab lain yang boleh meningkatkan risiko kanser paru-paru.

Gejala kanser paru-paru

Pesakit mungkin tidak menunjukkan sebarang simptom atau mengalami gejala seperti batuk dan sesak nafas yang mungkin dikaitkan dengan sistem pernafasan.

Namun, terdapat beberapa gejala kanser paru-paru yang perlu diambil perhatian. Antaranya: > Batuk atau batuk yang tidak hilang. Memang diketahui perokok mengalami batuk yang kronik akibat asap rokok, tetapi perubahan atau batuk yang bertambah teruk adalah satu gejala penting.

> Sakit di bahagian dada, bahu dan belakang berpanjangan. Kita akan berasa lebih sakit jika menarik nafas panjang.

> Nafas berbunyi.

> Sesak nafas.

> Suara serak.

> Batuk berdarah.

> Bengkak di bahagian leher atau muka.

> Hilang selera makan dan berat badan susut.

> Berasa terlalu letih dan lemah

> Kerap mendapat jangkitan paru-paru atau pneumonia.

> Bentuk hujung jari tangan atau kaki berubah serta membonjol.

Segera berjumpa doktor jika:

> Terdapat simptom kanser paru-paru.

> Batuk atau batuk yang berubah.

> Batuk bercampur darah atau batuk berdarah.

> Susut berat badan.

> Berasa terlalu letih.

> Badan berasa sakit dan punca tidak diketahui.

> Sesak nafas secara tiba-tiba.

> Sakit dada yang tidak hilang.

> Lumpuh secara tiba-tiba.

> Kabur penglihatan secara tiba-tiba.

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