Periksa Mata Anda Sekarang

ANTARA anggota utama yang tidak terlepas daripada kesan usia ini adalah mata, yang paling jelas merosot fungsinya selepas umur 50 tahun.

Usia emas tidak bermakna menjadi rabun atau buta, malahan ia boleh dicegah atau sekurang-kurangnya dilambatkan dengan langkah pencegahan dan rawatan terkini. Katarak, glaukoma, kemerosotan makula berkaitan usia (AMD) dan retinopati diabetik, yang paling banyak menyebabkan masalah mata dan kebutaan warga emas.

Mata merupakan antara struktur badan yang mempunyai metabolisme paling tinggi. Lebih 120 juta fotoreseptor mata berfungsi setiap milisaat dan tidak berhenti selagi mata dibuka untuk melihat. Begitu banyak salur darah halus membolehkan metabolisme tinggi ini berterusan dan mata terus melihat.

Tahap kesihatan mata juga dapat menjadi penunjuk kepada tahap kesihatan badan seseorang .

Oleh itu, adalah dinasihatkan pemeriksaan berkala untuk mata perlu dimulakan dari umur 40-an, atau lebih awal lagi dan bukan hanya diperiksa selepas masalah penglihatan mula timbul.

Struktur mata terbina daripada beberapa bahagian berbeza seperti kornea, iris, kanta, retina, saraf optik, makula dan salur darah halus . Kehilangan penglihatan mungkin boleh dirawat atau tidak, bergantung kepada struktur yang terjejas. Oleh itu pengesanan awal dan langkah pencegahan adalah sangat penting.

Hasil kajian yang dijalankan menunjukkan masalah obesiti atau kegemukan menjadi punca kepada kebanyakan penyakit.

Perangkaan terbaru juga menunjukkan semakin ramai golongan muda negara ini (di bawah umur 40 tahun) yang menghidap diabetes jenis kedua, seawal umur 20-an lagi. Gejala ini akan membawa kepada komplikasi salur darah halus (mikrovaskular) yang banyak terdapat pada mata. Retinopati diabetik merupakan punca utama kebutaan yang boleh dicegah dan mungkin menyebabkan pesakit buta seawal usia 30-an.

Paras gula yang tidak terkawal, terlalu tinggi (hiperglisemia) atau terlalu rendah (hipoglisemia) dan tempoh menghidap diabetes (lebih lama lebih bahaya) menentukan risiko menghidap retinopati diabetik.

Diabetes juga boleh membawa kepada komplikasi makulopati diabetik (pengumpulan lemak di dalam mata yang menyebabkan bengkak pada makula) dan glaukoma atau peningkatan tekanan pada mata.

Jenis-jenis masalah mata:

1. Katarak – Punca utama kebutaan masyarakat dunia ialah katarak yang menyebabkan kanta mata (yang jernih) menjadi legap sehingga cahaya tidak dapat sampai ke retina. Katarak tidak boleh dicegah tetapi boleh dirawat. Walaubagaimanapun amalan pemakanan dan cara hidup sihat dikatakan mampu melambatkan proses terjadinya katarak. Antara tanda ialah penglihatan menjadi kabur secara beransur-ansur dan tidak boleh dibetulkan dengan cermin mata. Pesakit diabetes juga berisiko mendapat katarak lebih muda (sekitar umur 45 tahun). Mereka juga mungkin mengalami katarak gula (mata tiba-tiba kabur) akibat pengumpulan terlalu banyak gula dalam mata. Dengan teknologi terkini, pembedahan katarak menjadi lebih selamat, mudah dan proses pemulihan penglihatan juga menjadi semakin singkat.

2. Glaukoma pula merupakan keadaan di mana berlakunya kemerosotan fungsi saraf optik yang menyebabkan medan penglihatan semakin sempit seterusnya kebutaan kekal, di mana tekanan mata yang tinggi adalah penyebab utama berlakunya masalah ini.

Ujian saringan penglihatan oleh individu terlatih amat penting apabila melangkaui umur 40 tahun, terutamanya jika mempunyai sejarah keluarga dengan masalah tersebut.

3. Kemerosotan Makula Berkaitan Usia (AMD) – merupakan punca kedua utama kebutaan dunia. AMD adalah penyakit kemerosotan retina yang memberi kesan kepada makula, iaitu bahagian paling sensitif dalam mata yang membolehkan kita melihat sesuatu secara terperinci.

Pesakit AMD juga selalunya hanya dapat dikesan pada peringkat lewat iaitu bila penglihatan terjejas kerana pada peringkat awal pesakit tidak mempunyai tanda-tanda yang nyata. Pesakit AMD mungkin mengalami kesukaran dengan tugas visual seperti membaca, menentukan masa, mengenali muka dan memandu.

Berbanding katarak yang lebih mudah dikesan, glaukoma, retinopati diabetik dan AMD yang menjejaskan bahagian belakang mata boleh dikesan melalui ujian saringan yang kini terdapat di kebanyakan hospital dan klinik sama ada kerajaan ataupun swasta.

Pencegahan awal

Walaupun kini terdapat teknologi moden yang dapat membantu rawatan penyakit-penyakit mata tersebut, pilihan utama tetap kepada pencegahan bagi mengekalkan struktur dan fungsi semula jadi mata. Dianggarkan lapan juta penduduk dunia melebihi umur 55 tahun menghidap AMD, dengan 1.3 juta daripadanya akan membentuk AMD yang teruk jika tidak dirawat.

Beberapa kajian yang telah dan sedang dijalankan menunjukkan peranan antioksidan, zink dan asid lemak omega-3 memberi kesan positif dalam mengurangkan risiko dan melambatkan pembentukan AMD.

Selain pemeriksaan berkala, pencegahan dengan pengambilan antioksida dapat membantu mengurangkan kandungan radikal bebas di dalam badan, terutamanya pada mata.

Kajian menunjukkan pengambilan diet kaya dengan vitamin E dan zink mungkin bermanfaat dalam mengurangkan risiko AMD, sehingga 35 peratus jika ditambah vitamin C dan beta karotin. Dipercayai lutein meningkatkan kepadatan pigmen optikal makula mata dan meningkatkan ketajaman penglihatan jarak dekat dan sensitiviti kontras. Gabungan lutein dan zeaxanthin juga didapati dapat memberi kesan perlindungan mata daripada AMD.

Berdasarkan beberapa kajian, pengambilan bersama asid lemak omega-3 (seperti DHA, EPA), lutein dan zeaxanthin mungkin lebih berkesan menurunkan risiko AMD. Oleh itu, pengambilan suplemen tambahan tertentu mungkin membantu untuk melindungi mata dari kesan peningkatan usia.

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