Psoriasis Tingkat Risiko Serangan Jantung

Dianggarkan tiga peratus daripada penduduk dunia menghidap psoriasis. Di Malaysia, seramai 14,486 orang dilaporkan menghidap penyakit ini (data Registri Psoriasis Malaysia 2007-2015).

Psoriasis adalah sejenis penyakit kulit yang berpanjangan dan berulang. Ia boleh dialami oleh semua orang tidak kira dewasa atau kanak-kanak.

Ia terjadi disebabkan gangguan sistem imun badan yang menyebabkan pertumbuhan sel-sel kulit lebih cepat iaitu tiga hingga tujuh hari berbanding 21 hingga 28 hari dalam keadaan biasa.

Proses ini menyebabkan sel-sel bergerak ke atas kulit dengan cepat seterusnya menjadikan kulit muncul sebagai tompok-tompok merah dengan sisik yang tebal di permukaan kulit.

Perunding Dermatologi Pusat Perubatan Tropicana Datuk Dr Noor Zalmy Azizan berkata, psoriasis turut meningkatkan risiko serangan jantung dan penyakit kardiovaskular lain.

“Ramai yang bertanya bagaimana penyakit di permukaan kulit boleh berkait dengan jantung. Sama seperti penyakit auto imun yang lain, psoriasis menyebabkan sistem imun tubuh memberikan reaksi berlebihan terhadap benda asing di dalam tubuh yang dianggap sebagai ancaman.

“Reaksi imun yang berlebihan menyebabkan terjadinya radang di sebahagian atau seluruh tubuh yang kemudian tumbuh sisik kemerahan pada kulit menyebabkan berlaku penyempitan pembuluh darah (aterosklerosis),” katanya ketika ditemui di pusat perubatan itu, baru-baru ini.

Menurutnya, kulit kepala, lutut serta siku termasuk kuku dan tulang antara bahagian badan yang berisiko dihidapi dan penumbuhan plak pada tangan serta kaki menyukarkan pesakit melakukan sesetengah pekerjaan, senaman atau aktiviti.

“Cuaca panas turut memberi kesan hingga kulit mereka berparut, selain mengalami masalah ketidakselesaan fizikal. Malah, penyakit itu mengundang keresahan, ketara, berulang dan menyakitkan hingga remaja ini mengalami trauma psikologi.

“Malu tampil di khalayak ramai. Fungsi asas diri mereka seperti berjalan atau tidur juga terjejas akibat masalah yang dihadapi,” katanya.

Dr Noor Zalmy turut menjelaskan ramai yang salah faham terhadap penyakit ini kerana menyangka ia berjangkit. Psoriasis adalah penyakit tidak berjangkit dan masyarakat tidak perlu risau mengenainya.

“Psoriasis tidak boleh sembuh tetapi rawatan jangka panjang boleh mengawal penyakit ini. Sebab itu jangan ambil mudah jika ada simptom seperti kelemumur yang teruk, gatal apabila berpeluh, tompok pada kuku dan sebagainya. Selain siku, lutut, kaki dan kepala, ia juga boleh berlaku di kemaluan.

“Serangan untuk setiap individu adalah berbeza. Kira-kira 40 peratus daripada pesakit psoriasis mempunyai ahli keluarga yang menghidap penyakit berkenaan,” katanya.

Katanya lagi, psoriasis turut dikaitkan dengan penyakit lain seperti obesiti, tekanan darah tinggi, diabetes dan hiperlipidemia atau kadar kolesterol dalam darah terlalu tinggi.

“Faktor lain yang mencetuskan psoriasis adalah kecederaan pada kulit, pendedahan langsung kepada cahaya matahari, HIV, ubat-ubatan tertentu seperti beta-blocker dan jangkitan streptokokus. Selain itu, keadaan ini juga boleh berpunca daripada perubahan hormon, kesan alkohol, merokok dan tekanan.

“Paling penting amalkan gaya hidup sihat kerana penyakit berkait seumpama ini boleh meningkatkan risiko kematian bagi penghidap psoriasis. Kebanyakan penghidap psoriasis mendapat simptom pertama pada usia 20 hingga 40 tahun. Punca trend ini tidak dapat dijelaskan secara saintifik tetapi ada juga pesakit saya seawal usia empat tahun sudah menghidap psoriasis,” katanya.

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