Rawat Melalui Pembedahan

Secara umumnya, sistem pencernaan badan bermula dari esofagus, perut, usus kecil dan usus besar manakala apendiks pula berada di persimpangan antara usus kecil dan usus besar.

Istimewanya, apendiks dikenali sebagai usus buntu kerana makanan yang dihadam boleh memasuki saluran berkenaan tetapi tidak boleh keluar.

Disebabkan keadaan usus buntu tanpa salur keluar sebegitu, ia mudah mengalami apendisitis iaitu radang yang berlaku pada usus apendiks.

Jika apendiks normal berwarna merah jambu, namun apabila bahagian ini tersumbat ia mengakibatkan berlakunya radang dan bertukar kemerah-merahan serta mengalami bengkak.

Menurut Pakar Perunding Bedah Am & Gastrousus Pusat Perubatan Tropicana, Dr Kwan Keat Leong, individu yang mengalami radang apendiks akan mengalami sakit perut tidak ketara di sekeliling pusat.

Tetapi apabila berlarutan, ia akan berpindah ke bahagian kanan dan bawah pusat serta kesakitan dialami lebih ketara.

“Penghijrahan lokasi kesakitan ini bergantung kepada individu kerana ia boleh berlaku dalam masa setengah hari saja atau sebaliknya. Malah mereka juga akan mengalami muntah dan demam yang tidak keterlaluan,” katanya.

Kebanyakan individu yang mengalami sakit perut pula mempunyai tanggapan pertama ia disebabkan gastrik atau keracunan makanan.

Tetapi yang nyata ia bukan gastrik kerana lokasi rasa sakit gastrik itu berlaku di bahagian atas pusat bukan di bawahnya.

“Oleh itu, penting untuk mengenal pasti gejala sebenar bagi mengelakkan sikap sambil lewa kerana beranggapan ia bukan satu masalah serius.

“Ramai yang tidak mendapatkan rawatan segera untuk mengatasi radang apendiks kerana gejala serta tanda awal ditunjukkan seakan-akan mengalami gastrik dan keracunan makanan,” katanya.

Tiada golongan khusus bagi penghidap radang apendiks kerana sesiapa saja boleh mengalaminya iaitu seawal usia satu atau dua tahun hinggalah orang dewasa.

Jika ada yang mengatakan radang apendiks dikaitkan dengan isu pemakanan, ia juga tiada kaitan sama sekali.

Malah individu yang mengalami masalah sembelit berisiko tinggi menghidap radang apendiks.

“Kedudukan usus buntu ataupun apendiks yang berdekatan usus besar menyebabkan najis di bahagian usus besar kadangkala menyumbat laluan dan menyebabkan cecair di dalamnya tidak boleh keluar.

“Segala bakteria dan kuman yang tersumbat itu menyebabkan organ berkenaan mengalami jangkitan kuman dan berlaku radang,” katanya.

Kemudian apabila radang apendiks pecah, ia akan menyebabkan bakteria serta kuman yang terkumpul di dalam apendiks merebak ke bahagian perut dan mengakibatkan radang di dalam abdomen.

Malah, penularan kuman serta bakteria ini juga boleh tersebar ke seluruh badan yang dikenali sebagai sepsis.

Jika sepsis dibiarkan tanpa rawatan susulan sama ada antibiotik ataupun pembedahan, ia boleh membawa maut.

“Rawatan tunggal yang boleh dilakukan untuk menangani masalah radang apendiks ini hanyalah melalui pembedahan.

“Cara ini bertujuan mengeluarkan apendiks yang menjadi punca masalah dalam badan serta mengelakkan kesakitan berpanjangan pada masa depan,” katanya.

Dr Kwan juga menegaskan, individu yang mengalami sakit perut berlanjutan perlu mendapatkan pemeriksaan awal bagi mengenal pasti masalah sama ada disebabkan gastrik ataupun apendiks.

Individu yang mengalami masalah cirit-birit berlanjutan juga perlu mendapatkan pemeriksaan doktor kerana tidak semua gejala itu disebabkan keracunan makanan dan mungkin berpunca daripada radang apendiks pecah.

Gejala radang apendiks pada peringkat lanjutan:

• Demam kuat• Sembelit• Loya dan kadangkala muntah• Cirit-birit• Kembung perut

Sekiranya radang apendiks tidak dirawat dengan segera, berlaku komplikasi seperti pecah atau penembusan pada apendiks.

Keadaan ini juga boleh menyebabkan najis keluar ke dalam perut mengakibatkan jangkitan di lapisan perut dan boleh membawa maut.

Ada pesakit radang apendiks beranggapan ia boleh dirawat dengan hanya memakan antibiotik tetapi yang nyata, keadaan sebaliknya.

Penggunaan antibiotik hanya membolehkan radang apendiks dirawat separuh jalan dan boleh menyebabkan ia lebih teruk sekiranya tidak dirawat segera.

“Penggunaan antibiotik hanya boleh memberikan kesan lebih memudaratkan kerana ia tidak merawat radang apendiks sepenuhnya. Daripada apendiks dengan radang mudah, ia akan pecah dan membahayakan kesihatan,” katanya.

Pembedahan secara terbuka

Jika pesakit berada pada peringkat lanjutan dan radang apendiksnya sudah pecah, proses pembedahan lebih rumit, justeru tempoh pemulihan di hospital lebih lama.

Pembedahan laparoskopik (kaedah lubang kunci)

Pembedahan ini boleh dilakukan bagi mereka yang mendapatkan rawatan lebih awal dan perlu tinggal di hospital satu atau dua hari saja.

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