Renjatan Elektrik

Renjatan elektrik adalah bahaya yang berlaku apabila seseorang tersentuh atau terdedah kepada arus yang mengalir melalui badan.

Disebabkan tubuh kita konduktor terbaik, arus elektrik yang mengalir mengakibatkan kecederaan akibat renjatan.

Selain cedera dan mengakibatkan komplikasi kepada kesihatan, renjatan boleh menyebabkan kematian. Berdasarkan statistik kemalangan elektrik yang dikeluarkan Suruhanjaya Tenaga (ST), sebanyak 13 kes kemalangan elektrik berlaku di seluruh negara dengan tujuh daripadanya membabitkan mangsa meninggal dunia pada 2015.

Pada 2014, ST merekod dan menyiasat sebantak 63 kes kemalangan elektrik dengan 27 daripadanya adalah kes maut.

Kecederaan akibat renjatan bergantung pada arus voltan, sukatan arus (Ampere), jenis arus (langsung atau tidak langsung), rintangan tubuh terhadap arus, laluan arus melalui badan dan jangka masa tubuh terdedah kepada arus.

Semua faktor ini yang menghasilkan kesan daripada renjatan amat ringan seperti mencucuk-cucuk sehingga kematian serta-merta.

Sistem saraf merangkumi otak, saraf tunjang dan saraf sangat sensitif terhadap kecederaan renjatan elektrik dan masalah neurologikal adalah kesan buruk yang sering dialami mangsa renjatan elektrik. Walaupun kerosakan neurologikal boleh jadi ringan dan pulih sendiri atau dengan bantuan rawatan perubatan, ia boleh jadi serius dan kekal.

Kerosakan pada pernafasan dan sistem kardiovaskular paling tinggi ketika kecederaan. Renjatan elektrik boleh melumpuhkan sistem pernafasan termasuk mengganggu jantung yang menyebabkan kematian segera.

Urat dan arteri lebih kecil juga berisiko apabila renjatan elektrik menyebabkan darah tersumbat, manakala kerosakan pada saluran darah lebih kecil menyebabkan anggota badan badan terpaksa dipotong.

Kecederaan lain termasuk katarak, kegagalan buah pinggang, kemusnahan tisu otot dan renjatan tinggi menyebabkan kekejangan otot serius sehingga mampu mematahkan tulang-temulang.

Jurutera Kanan Pemasaran Produk Schneider Electric Malaysia, Mazliazhar Abdul Latif, berkata renjatan elektrik mendatangkan dua jenis kesan utama kepada mangsa iaitu rangsangan otot dan saraf serta lecuran pada tisu dan organ.

“Arus dari 0 hingga 10 miliAmpere (mA) memberikan kesan seperti mencucuk-cucuk yang amat ringan dan tidak menyebabkan kecederaan, sebaliknya arus dari 10 mA hingga 40 mA menyebabkan kontraksi otot.

“Disebabkan itu mangsa renjatan elektrik tidak boleh melepaskan peralatan yang menjadi sumber kepada renjatan kerana otot tangannya kejang. Contohnya, mangsa yang terkena renjatan semasa memegang pemancur air ketika mandi menggunakan pemanas air atau mangsa memegang pengering rambut.

“Bagi arus 40 mA hingga 100 mA, renjatan boleh menyebabkan tisu terbakar dan kulit melecur sehingga meninggalkan kesan pada badan. Malah, arus dengan kekuatan ini turut menyebabkan masalah pernafasan,” katanya.

Katanya, arus dengan kekuatan 100 mA hingga 900 mA menyebabkan masalah pada rentak jantung sama ada laju atau perlahan (aritmia). Mangsa juga boleh mengalami gangguan rentak jantung sepenuhnya iaitu fibrilasi ventrikular (VF) yang menyebabkan jantung berhenti mengepam dan renjatan dengan arus 1,000 mA sudah cukup menyebabkan maut.

“Namun, bagaimana renjatan elektrik menjejaskan kita juga bergantung pada rintangan kulit terhadap arus. Setiap orang mempunyai rintangan kulit terehadap arus yang berbeza, bagaimanapun faktor seperti kelembapan, ketebalan, dan kebersihan kulit juga mempengaruhi.

“Kulit yang lembap dan tipis kurang rintangannya berbanding kulit yang tebal dan kering. Apabila rintangan kulit pada arus rendah, arus mungkin menyebabkan kelecuran pada tisu dan organ dalaman berbanding rintangan kulit kepada arus yang tinggi mungkin hanya menyebabkan kulit melecur teruk,” katanya.

Beliau berkata demikian pada kempen keselamatan elektrik, ElectroSafety, bertujuan meningkatkan kesedaran mengenai keselamatan elektrik di rumah dan membantu mengurangkan kadar kemalangan elektrik akibat kecuaian.

Kempen anjuran syarikat pengurusan tenaga dan automasi itu juga bermatlamat untuk mendidik orang awam mengenai kepentingan melaksanakan perlindungan elektrikal yang betul dan perkakas elektrik yang selamat bagi mengurangkan kecederaan renjatan elektrik.

Turut hadir, Pengarah Kawal Selia Keselamatan Elektrik ST, Mohd Elmi Anas; Presiden Schneider Electric Malaysia, Soo Pow Leong dan Presiden Persatuan Elektrik dan Elektronik Malaysia (TEEAM), Ir Chew Shee Fuee.

Pada kempen itu, pengguna digalakkan memeriksa papan agihan bekalan elektrik di rumah dan menggunakan pemutus litar arus baki dengan perlindungan untuk beban arus lebih (RCBO) yang mampu menutup bekalan kuasa serta-merta sebaik ia mengesan situasi renjatan elektrik.

RCBO adalah kombinasi pemutus litar arus baki (RCCB) dan pemutus litar kecil (MCB) yang bertindak sebagai perlindungan daripada litar pintas, lebih beban dan renjatan elektrik akibat kebocoran.

Sementara itu, Mohd Elmi berkata, kebanyakan kes maut kemalangan elektrik berpunca daripada pemanas air di bilik mandi dan sehubungan itu pihaknya yang mewajibkan pemasangan RCCB dengan kepekaan 10 mA pada setiap alat pemanas air mengikut Akta Bekalan Elektrik 1994.

“Tindakan ini dilakukan berikutan terdapat peningkatan kes kematian akibat renjatan elektrik berpunca daripada litar pintas yang berlaku pada pemanas air sejak kebelakangan ini. Pengguna di rumah yang gagal mematuhi peraturan ini boleh didenda sehingga RM5,000.

“RCCB adalah peranti penting yang dipasang pada sistem pembekalan elektrik dalam sesebuah premis bertujuan mengelakkan renjatan elektrik. Jika terdapat arus elektrik yang melalui badan manusia, RCCB akan mengesan keadaan ini dan secara automatik memutuskan bekalan kuasa,” katanya.

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