Risiko Obesiti Semasa Hamil

SOALAN: Apakah risikonya saiz badan yang semakin membesar semasa hamil? Apakah risikonya kepada ibu dan bayi? Bolehkah risiko tersebut diubah?

*Kamila, Johor.

Kebanyakan wanita bersaiz besar boleh menjalani kehamilan yang sihat. Berat badan anda mungkin tidak mempunyai kesan terhadap kehamilan ataupun kelahiran bayi. Tetapi ada beberapa komplikasi yang boleh memberi kesan pada kehamilan dan berat badan yang berlebihan boleh meletakkan anda dalam risiko yang lebih tinggi untuk mengalaminya. Anda mungkin tidak akan mengalami komplikasi tersebut, tetapi lebih baik jika anda tahu perkara itu supaya boleh berhati-hati.

Para doktor dan pengkaji masih tidak tahu dengan tepat apakah kaitan berat badan dengan komplikasi-komplikasi berikut. Terdapat beberapa faktor lain seperti umur, sejarah genetik, tahap penolakan insulin, gaya hidup dan latar belakang etnik seseorang wanita itu. Komplikasi kehamilan biasa yang dikaitkan dengan berat badan berlebihan atau obes termasuk kencing manis, darah tinggi yang diakibatkan oleh kehamilan, pra-eklampsia, pelahiran pramatang dan bayi besar (makrosomia).

Apabila tiba masa untuk bersalin, BMI yang tinggi boleh menyebabkan anda berkemungkinan untuk mengalami kelahiran dibantu (forseps atau vakum), pembedahan caesarean dan distosia bahu (bahu bayi tersangkut pada tulang punggung ibu semasa dilahirkan). Para penyelidik juga telah mengaitkan obesiti dengan pertambahan risiko melahirkan bayi dengan kecacatan tiub neural dan masalah-masalah lain termasuk kecacatan jantung dan kecacatan pada dinding abdomen. Pun begitu, risiko mengalami masalah-masalah ini sangat kecil.

Kebanyakan masalah dan situasi kesihatan tersebut boleh diuruskan, dan dalam kes-kes tertentu boleh dielakkan. Anda mungkin tidak mengalami sebarang masalah dan boleh menjalani kehamilan yang sihat dan bersalin tanpa sebarang masalah. Kebanyakan wanita bersaiz besar menjalani kehamilan dan melahirkan bayi secara normal.

Idealnya ialah anda patut cuba mengurangkan berat badan sebelum hamil. Tetapi jika anda sudah pun hamil semasa membaca artikel ini, anda masih boleh membantu diri dan bayi anda.

Cara yang terbaik untuk mengurangkan risiko adalah dengan mengamalkan diet yang sihat, kerap bersenam dan mengikuti panduan penambahan berat badan.

Berdiet untuk menguruskan badan semasa hamil bukanlah idea yang baik. Malah, kajian menunjukkan terdapatnya kaitan antara berdiet semasa tiga bulan pertama kehamilan dengan bayi yang dilahirkan dengan kecacatan tiub neural, tidak kira bagaimana saiz si ibu. Perkara terbaik yang boleh anda lakukan untuk diri anda dan bayi adalah dengan mengikuti diet yang sihat dan seimbang, dan mengelakkan makanan yang kaya dengan lemak dan gula.

Senaman yang kerap semasa hamil adalah cara yang baik untuk membantu badan anda menghadapi kehamilan dan bersiap sedia untuk kelahiran. Ia merupakan salah satu cara yang paling efektif untuk menurunkan berat badan terutamanya apabila digabungkan dengan diet yang sihat dan boleh mengurangkan risiko melahirkan bayi yang besar.

Tetapi jika anda tidak biasa bersenam sebelum anda hamil, ini bukan masa yang terbaik untuk memulakan satu rejim senaman yang berat. Asalkan anda mendapat kebenaran doktor, anda boleh melakukan senaman ringan dan sederhana. Lakukan aktiviti-aktiviti berimpak rendah seperti berjalan atau berenang. Sesi senaman haruslah pendek dan anda perlu kekalkan hidrasi badan dengan meminum banyak air.

Penting juga bagi anda berbincang dengan doktor tentang faktor risiko individu anda. Adakah anda mempunyai sejarah tekanan darah tinggi atau kencing manis?

Adakah dalam sejarah keluarga anda mempunyai bayi yang besar? Apabila anda tahu faktor-faktor risiko peribadi ini, anda boleh bekerjasama dengan doktor untuk mendapatkan peluang terbaik melahirkan bayi yang sihat.

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