Sedap Bawa Mudarat

Sebelum nasi menjadi bubur dan menyesal tidak berkesudahan, sebaiknya kawal pengambilan makanan berlemak serta minuman manis jika mahu mengekalkan kesihatan dan kesejahteraan tubuh badan dalam tempoh lama.

Makanan bergoreng dan berlemak memang enak dinikmati, apatah lagi ia mampu membangkitkan selera jika dijamu dengan nasi panas. Namun, pengambilannya setiap hari harus dihadkan bagi mengelakkan diri mendapat penyakit kronik seperti serangan sakit jantung.

Menurut Ketua Pakar Diet Institut Jantung Negara (IJN), Mary Easaw, agak sukar untuk mengubah selera masyarakat di negara ini.

“Melalui pemerhatian saya, komuniti India sudah mula mengubah penggunaan santan kepada yogurt atau susu rendah lemak dalam menyediakan hidangan kari.

“Kaum Cina lebih gemarkan makanan bergoreng, bakar dan stim manakala masyarakat Melayu dengan penggunaan santan kelapa serta pengambilan makanan bergula atau bergoreng,” katanya sambil menambah, pengambilan makanan bergoreng atau berminyak boleh dihadkan kepada dua kali seminggu, itupun jika kita teringin menikmatinya.

Bukan tidak dibenarkan langsung, namun harus bijak mengawal pengambilan makanan yang memberi kesan buruk kepada kesihatan, sekali gus mencegah serangan sakit jantung.

Mengamalkan diet seimbang dengan hidangan sihat boleh didedahkan kepada anak sejak awal selain ibu bapa menjadi contoh kepada si kecil untuk menggalakkan pengambilan sajian berkhasiat.

“Apabila sudah tiba masa si kecil diperkenalkan makanan pejal, ibu bapa perlu bijak memberikan sumber makanan berkhasiat. Ketika ini, perkenalkan dengan sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan yang disediakan mengikut cara masakan yang sesuai dengan anak.

“Ini salah satu cara betul untuk memastikan anak menyukai buah dan sayur di samping dapat membantu meningkatkan paras serat dalam badan serta merendahkan kolesterol sejak kecil,” katanya.

Gaya hidup sihat di tempat kerja

Selain anak, ibu bapa sendiri perlu menunjukkan contoh yang baik kepada si kecil. Justeru, tema untuk bulan kesedaran pe-nyakit jantung tahun ini adalah ‘gaya hidup sihat di tempat kerja.’

Kita berada di tempat kerja sekurang-kurangnya lapan jam sehari termasuk waktu makan. Untuk apa bekerja susah payah jika akhirnya kita perlu mengeluarkan kos yang tinggi bagi mengubati penyakit yang boleh dicegah itu.

Lebih memburukkan keadaan apabila penyakit yang dihidapi itu penyakit yang menjadi pembunuh nombor satu di Malaysia iaitu sakit jantung.

Pada awal pembabitan Mary sebagai pakar diet 20 tahun lalu di IJN, dia mendapati kebanyakan pesakit dalam kalangan mereka yang berusia 80-an berbanding masa kini ada golongan muda seawal 30-an yang sudah menghidap penyakit jantung.

Antara faktor penyebab sakit jantung adalah pe-ngambilan makanan bergoreng atau berlemak, tidak cukup serat, merokok dan tekanan.

“Kerja memerlukan tenaga. Justeru, setiap individu perlu bijak merancang pe-ngambilan makanan mereka setiap hari yang bermula dengan sarapan.

“Jika tidak sihat, sukar menyelesaikan tugasan kerja dengan baik. Keseluruhan kalori yang diperlukan badan pula mengikut tenaga yang diperlukan individu berkenaan,” katanya.

Secara umum, lelaki memerlukan 2,000 hingga 2,200 kalori sehari manakala wanita memerlukan 1,800 hingga 2,000 kalori.

Mengawal kalori

Setiap kali bersarapan, ia perlu dilengkapi sumber karbohidrat, protein dan vitamin. Sebaiknya jangan ambil lebih daripada 350 hingga 400 kalori.

“Misalnya, mulakan de-ngan mengambil sarapan ringkas seperti roti atau bijirin yang tidak mengandungi banyak gula seperti oat. Untuk menikmati roti bersama telur, pastikan ia tidak dimasak menggunakan mi-nyak yang banyak.

“Makan roti bersama telur separuh masak, digoreng tanpa minyak atau telur yang dimasak hancur. Ja-ngan lupa mengambil buah seperti pisang dan epal untuk melengkapkan menu sihat,” katanya.

Sarapan boleh dilengkapi bersama secawan kopi atau teh, tapi tidak terlalu pekat dan manis. Minuman teh atau kopi kurang manis pula tidak lebih daripada tiga cawan sehari.

Jika ingin menambah susu, sebaiknya pilih susu rendah lemak atau tanpa lemak dan elakkan daripada penggunaan susu pekat.

Bagi penggemar minuman malt pada waktu pagi pula, elak daripada menambah gula atau susu pekat kerana ia sudah mengandungi manisan semula jadi.

Mary memenegaskan, jika mahu menikmati sarapan di kedai, pilih jenis hidangan sihat dan kurang berminyak seperti capati, tose, roti jala atau pelbagai jenis sup.

Apa saja jenis makanan boleh dimakan asalkan bijak memilih hidangan rendah kalori dan pada masa sama dapat memenuhi keperluan sumber nutrien diperlukan tubuh.

Lazimnya, masyarakat di negara ini menjadikan nasi sebagai makanan ruji. Justeru, untuk memastikan jumlah karbohidrat, protein dan lemak yang diambil tidak berlebihan, kita perlu mengukur saiz hidangan mengikut pinggan makan yang digunakan.

Contoh ukuran hidangan makan tengah hari:> Separuh pinggan makan perlu mengandungi pelbagai jenis sayuran – separuh cawan sayur dimasak atau secawan ulam.

> Suku pinggan dihidangkan dengan protein seperti ikan, ayam atau udang. Ikan (sepotong ikan tenggiri, seekor ikan selar atau kembung sederhana), ayam (seketul paha atau dada dibuang kulit) dan udang (enam ekor sederhana dibuang kepala).

> Suku pinggan nasi (satu setengah senduk sederhana atau mangkuk Cina sederhana).

> Satu bahagian buah seperti sepotong betik atau sebiji epal dan pisang.

Bagi penggemar minum petang, harus tahu jenis hidangan pilihan seperti pau kukus, roti bulat (bun), popia basah dan buah-buahan.Paling penting, ambil air kosong enam hingga lapan gelas ketika bekerja kerana ia membantu proses membersihkan dalaman badan dan mengurangkan rasa lapar.

Namun, individu yang menghidap lemah jantung perlu mengehadkan pe-ngambilan air kosong me-ngikut saranan doktor dan pakar pemakanan.

Hidangan ringkas waktu malam

Jika kita berhasrat membeli makan malam selepas pulang bekerja, sebaiknya elak membeli makanan berlebihan. Bijak memilih hidangan kerana waktu malam tidak memerlukan banyak tenaga, oleh itu kurangkan pe-ngambilan kalori.

“Lebihkan pengambilan sayur dan buah atau nikmati hidangan ringkas seperti sandwic atau roti penuh mil dan roti jagung. Walaupun ada yang tidak gemarkan hidangan sedemikian, ia bukan alasan jika mahu sihat,” katanya.

Jika mahu membeli makanan, pilih hidangan yang dimasak seperti asam pedas, ayam atau ikan bakar. Untuk lebih jimat dan memastikan kebersihan, masak sayur sendiri di rumah. Ini dapat me-ngimbangkan pengambilan kalori, apatah lagi sayur yang dimasak sendiri tidak menggunakan banyak minyak.

Jika ada masalah kolesterol tinggi, hadkan pengambilan hati binatang, telur kuning, telur ikan dan sotong.

“Perubahan besar pada kesihatan badan dapat dilihat sekiranya mengamalkan pengambilan makanan berkhasiat yang boleh me-ngurangkan berat badan, mengurangkan paras kolesterol dan gula serta menjalani hidup lebih ceria,” kata-nya.

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