Tampung Kaki, Berat Dengan Stabil

Berlari atau sekadar berjoging memberikan pelbagai manfaat kesihatan, malah ia kian menjadi sebahagian gaya hidup sihat dan cergas. Bagi yang gemar berlari, kasut adalah komponen penting dan pemilihan kasut yang sesuai mesti berpandukan kriteria seperti jenis atau bentuk kaki serta gaya berlari.

Ini kerana, kasut untuk sukan berlari direka khusus bukan saja untuk memantapkan teknik larian, tetapi bagi mengurangkan impak pada kaki, lutut dan jari kaki seterusnya mengelakkan pelbagai masalah sakit kaki serta kecederaan daripada berlaku.

Kasut lari biasanya mempunyai pelapik tambahan untuk mengurangkan kesan hentakan berulang dan dihasilkan untuk memberi sokongan serta kestabilan untuk lengkungan kaki (arch). Kasut yang dibuat untuk sukan lain seperti badminton atau bola keranjang mungkin tidak mempunyai ciri-ciri ini.

Mungkin bagi segelintir kita memiliki sepasang kasut sukan sudah memadai dan dari segi ekonominya pula dengan membeli sepasang kasut sukan, ia boleh digunakan untuk semua aktiviti sukan. Tanpa disedari, langkah ini boleh menyumbang kepada kecederaan atau sakit kaki dan kos perubatan yang perlu dibayar mungkin lebih mahal terutama bagi rawatan jangka panjang.

Pengurus Teknologi Maklumat, Pemasaran dan Jenama Produk Prestige Sports Sdn Bhd, Amirul Syafiq Azidin berkata, sebelum membeli kasut sukan untuk berlari kita tidak saja perlu memberi keutamaan kepada reka bentuk kasut yang memberikan keselesaan, malah memahami anatomi kaki sendiri iaitu mengenal pasti bentuk kaki dan jenis lengkungan tapak kaki.

Ini kerana, kita semua mempunyai jenis kaki yang berbeza dan pemilihan kasut sukan untuk berlari amat penting untuk prestasi larian dan kesihatan kaki itu sendiri.

“Kasut sukan yang selesa adalah kasut yang mampu menampung kaki dan berat badan dengan stabil. Ia juga untuk mengurangkan rasa sakit dan tekanan apabila berjalan, berlari mahupun ketika melakukan aktiviti fizikal yang lain.

“Malah, berlari juga memberikan tekanan kuat terhadap kaki berbanding aktiviti fizikal lain. Sewaktu berlari, kaki menampung tekanan sebanyak dua hingga lima kali ganda berat badan kita dalam setiap langkah ke hadapan.

“Oleh itu, kita mesti mempertimbangkan hentakan berulang kaki sewaktu berlari dan memakai kasut sukan yang betul adalah penting untuk mencegah kecederaan dan sakit kaki. Kedua-dua masalah terbabit lazimnya berpunca daripada pemakaian kasut sukan yang salah iaitu bukan yang dikhaskan untuk larian,” katanya.

Tapak kaki kita mempunyai lengkungan berbeza sama ada normal, tinggi atau rata dan lengkungan ini adalah bahagian penting anatomi kaki. Selain berfungsi sebagai penyerap hentakan, ia juga bertindak sebagai mekanisme penstabilan tubuh dengan membantu mengarah berat badan ke hadapan dari tumit kaki dan mengagihkan beban sama rata pada keseluruhan kaki supaya kita seimbang.

Ketika berjalan atau berlari, kaki kita akan membuat pronasi iaitu gerakan semula jadi tubuh yang merujuk kepada pusingan kaki ke arah dalam ketika memijak. Pronasi tidak saja membantu kaki menyerap impak hentakan, malah membantu dalam proses dorongan oleh tubuh pada tapak kaki dari tumit sehingga ke bahagian depan kaki untuk melangkah.

Bagaimanapun, bentuk lengkungan tapak kaki mempengaruhi pronasi. Mereka yang mempunyai tapak kaki rata akan cenderung menghasilkan pronasi melampau (overpronation) dan bagi tapak kaki lengkungan tinggi pula kurang melakukan pronasi (underpronation).

Normalnya ketika berlari bahagian luar tumit akan mendarat dulu dan melakukan gerakan pronasi untuk menyerap hentakan dan menyokong berat tubuh. Masalah pronasi yang melampau atau kurang pronasi inilah yang menyebabkan kecederaan dan masalah sakit kaki ketika berlari akibat kemampuan kaki menyerap hentakan dan mengagihkan bebanan menjadi tidak cekap.

“Dalam pronasi melampau, bahagian luar tumit yang mendarat dulu akan memindahkan beban berat ke bahagian dalam tapak kaki berbanding bebola kaki (bahagian depan kaki). Kaki kemudian menggunakan ibu jari dan jari kaki kedua untuk menghayun langkah menyebabkan kedua-dua jari itu terpaksa bekerja lebih keras. Dalam keadaan ini mereka cenderung mendapat sakit pada tapak kaki, tumit, lutut dan bunion.

“Bagi kurang pronasi pula, ketika bahagian luar tumit mendarat gerakan kaki memusing ke arah luar menyebabkan hentakan dihantar ke kawasan lebih sempit pada tapak kaki bahagian luar. Ini memaksa kaki menggunakan jari kaki keempat dan kelima untuk bekerja keras membuat hayunan langkah. Keadaan ini lazimnya menyebabkan sakit pada tapak kaki, buku lali dan lutut,” katanya.

Amirul Syafiq berkata, dengan memahami jenis pronasi berkenaan dapat membantu kita memilih kasut sukan untuk berlari yang selesa. Bagi mereka yang mempunyai lengkungan kaki normal tidak ada masalah dalam mencari kasut sukan sesuai dan hanya perlu mendapatkan kasut jenis stabil.

“Bagi kaki dengan lengkungan rata, anda perlu memakai kasut yang mempunyai sokongan atau struktur kusyen bagi mengawal pronasi kaki, manakala mereka dengan lengkungan tinggi perlu memakai kasut yang mempunyai lebih banyak kusyen untuk mengelakkan impak kuat, selain kaki dapat membuat gerakan menjadi lebih semula jadi.

“Oleh itu, anda perlu mendapatkan nasihat daripada penjual kasut sukan berpengalaman terlebih dulu ketika memilih kasut dan buat pemeriksaan kaki jika tidak tahu jenis lengkungan tapak kaki. Setiap kasut sukan sebenarnya direka berbeza mengikut jenis sukan dan jenis lengkungan tapak kaki.

“Mereka yang mempunyai kaki dengan lengkungan rata dan lengkungan tinggi juga boleh mendapat kecederaan dan masalah sakit kaki jika memakai kasut untuk kaki dengan lengkungan normal. Kesakitan juga dialami di bahagian pinggul, tulang belakang, atas buku lali dan jari kaki,” katanya.

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