Tiada Tanda Diri Sakit

Bagi mereka yang sering rasa tidak selesa, senak atau sakit pada bahagian perut setiap kali selepas makan, ia mengganggu tugasan harian, apatah lagi jika berlarutan dalam tempoh lama.

Malah, mungkin ramai beranggapan sakit dialami itu disebabkan gastrik, tetapi jangan terkejut apabila pemeriksaan doktor pakar mendapati terdapat ketulan batu dalam pundi hempedu badan.

Pakar Perunding Bedah Am dan Laparoskopik, Pusat Perubatan Prince Court (PCMC) Dr Mohd Faisal Jabar berkata, tidak dinafikan gejala penyakit batu karang hempedu seakan-akan sama dengan gastrik.Pesakit berasa senak dan kadangkala sakit di bahagian perut, disertai rasa mual, angin, kembung perut dan muntah.

“Ramai yang mengabaikan gejala berkenaan sehingga akhirnya kesan kesakitan dialami tidak lagi mampu ditanggung badan.

“Ketika ini mungkin jalan penyelesaian terbaik adalah untuk membuang organ berkenaan bagi mengelakkan ia berulang,” katanya.

Hati menghasilkan air hempedu iaitu sejenis cecair berwarna coklat kehijauan yang mengandungi garam hempedu, cecair lemak, kolesterol dan bahan kimia lain.

Cecair pekat ini disimpan dalam pundi hempedu hingga ia diperlukan untuk mencerna lemak dalam usus kecil.

Organ terbabit mengeluarkan satu liter air hempedu setiap hari. Apabila makan, pundi hempedu akan mengecut dan membebaskan hempedu melalui duktus sistik dan memasuki duktus hempedu biasa.

Kemudian, duktus hempedu ini membawa hempedu ke bahagian atas atau pangkal usus kecil (duodenum) dengan ia mula memecahkan lemak makanan yang diambil itu.

Seseorang individu boleh mengalaminya tanpa sedar kerana ia boleh hadir tanpa gejala tertentu.

Proses ini juga mengambil masa bertahun-tahun untuk wujud dalam hempedu seseorang tanpa disedari dan jumlahnya mungkin mencecah puluhan biji.

“Ia berlaku apabila hempedu tidak memiliki bahan kimia seimbang dan membentuk partikel keras yang kemudian menjadi batu karang.

“Batuan terbabit akan terus berada dalam pundi hempedu dan bertambah jumlahnya sekiranya ia tidak dikesan lebih awal bagi mengurangkan masalah terbabit,” katanya.

Apabila pundi hempedu dipenuhi batu hempedu, proses pencernaan lemak dan kolesterol menjadi semakin kurang efektif.

Ia menyebabkan cecair hempedu dan kolesterol memasuki sistem darah dan mengakibatkan pelbagai penyakit lain seperti sakit kuning, penyempitan salur darah, tekanan darah tinggi, jantung, kerosakan hati, masalah buah pinggang dan usus.

“Jika satu ketika dulu individu yang mengalaminya berusia 40 tahun ke atas, tetapi kini golongan muda seawal usia 20 tahun sudah disahkan menghidapnya.

“Keadaan ini disebabkan perubahan cara hidup dan pengambilan diet harian yang semakin mudah dan semuanya berasaskan makanan segera,” katanya.

Selain itu, jika batu hempedu ini terjatuh dalam saluran hempedu, ia boleh menyebabkan orang dewasa mendapat demam kuning dan akut pankreatitis.

Antara penyebab berlakunya masalah ini adalah cara hidup moden yang serba mudah, kurangnya aktiviti fizikal serta makanan mengandungi banyak kolesterol, lemak, bahan perasa dan pewarna sintetik di samping pencemaran udara, asap kenderaan, kosmetik mengandungi kimia sintetik, alkohol dan rokok.

Terdapat beberapa penyakit berpunca daripada masalah batu karang hempedu iaitu:

Kolik hempedu

Ia berlaku disebabkan satu daripada batu karang yang terhasil tersangkut di tengah pundi hempedu selepas makan membuatkan individu terbabit mengalami kekejangan.

Rasa sakit terbabit bermula pada bahagian ulu hati dan membawa ke bahagian belakang.

Jika kolik hempedu berlaku dalam masa singkat serta menyebabkan kekejangan dan jangkitan, ia akan menjadi radang (acute Cholecystitis).

Kronik Cholecyctitis

Keradangan kelenjar pankreas.

Gejala batu karang dalam hempedu:

Rasa senak kronik yang hadir dengan rasa mual, angin, kembung perut dan kadangkala sakit di bahagian perut.

Kesakitan yang datang secara tiba-tiba, konsisten dan sederhana bertukar teramat sangat di bahagian tengah dan kanan atas perut.

Rasa sakit apabila ditekan pada bahagian tepi ulu hati.

Rasa sakit di hempedu ketika menarik nafas.

Rasa loya dan muntah tanpa sebab.

Kadangkala, batu karang hempedu terperangkap di pangkal pundi hempedu dan mengakibatkan rasa sakit berterusan atau mengalami demam panas.

Selain itu, ada ketikanya batu karang hempedu terlepas daripada pundi hempedu dan masuk melalui duktus dari hati dan pundi hempedu ke usus kecil (duktus hempedu biasa).

Ia juga boleh masuk melalui duktus yang menghala pankreas dan menyebabkan ketulan batu karang ini tersumbat dan menyekat duktus mengakibatkan komplikasi dikenali sebagai pankreatitis.

Jenis batu karang hempedu:

Batu karang hempedu berkolesterol.

Batu karang hempedu berwarna kuning mengandungi kolesterol yang tidak terlarut, walaupun ia mungkin mengandungi komponen lain seperti kalsium dan bilirubin (sisa sel darah merah yang lemah).

Sebanyak 80 peratus batu karang hempedu adalah batu kolesterol.

Batu karang hempedu berpigmen.

Batuan kecil berwarna coklat gelap atau hitam terbentuk apabila terdapat terlalu banyak bilirubin.

Ia boleh dihidapi mereka yang mengalami sirosis, jangkitan trek biliari dan anaemia sel sikel yang menghasilkan bilirubin secara berlebihan.

Kaedah atau rawatan boleh digunakan untuk menangani batu karang hempedu:

Pembedahan laparoskopik kolesistektomi.

Kebanyakan surgeri pundi hempedu dijalankan menggunakan laparoskopi iaitu sejenis tiub nipis dengan sistem lampu dan kamera video kecil.

Beberapa insisi (menghiris tisu) kecil akan dilakukan dan individu berkenaan akan kurang berasa sakit selepas pembedahan, kurang parut dan boleh kembali melakukan aktiviti seharian hanya dalam beberapa hari.

Pembedahan terbuka.

Pundi hempedu dikeluarkan melalui insisi besar di perut. Selepas pembedahan dilakukan, hati terus menghasilkan hempedu secukupnya untuk mencernakan diet yang normal.

Bukan pembedahan

Batu karang terbentuk berulang kali apabila rawatan bukan pembedahan dilakukan. Bagaimanapun, apabila pembedahan bukan pilihan utama pesakit, doktor akan mencadangkan:

Pil garam hempedu.

Doktor menyarankan pengambilan ubat ursodial (Actigall) yang akan melarutkan batu kolesterol untuk tempoh ditetapkan.

Rawatan ini sesuai dilakukan untuk batu karang yang kecil.

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