Usia Bukan Penghalang

ATAS sebab-sebab tertentu, tidak dinafikan ramai wanita ketika ini melangkah ke gerbang perkahwinan pada usia melebihi 30-an. Malahan ada juga yang mengambil keputusan berkahwin pada usia 40 tahun.

Fenomena ini adakalanya menimbulkan kerisauan terutama di kalangan ibu bapa pasangan kerana memikirkan peluang wanita tersebut untuk hamil rendah.

Umum mengetahui seseorang wanita itu berada di tahap kesuburan tinggi pada usia 20-an. Bermula pada usia 30 tahun, peluang itu menurun dan seterusnya semakin mengecil ketika mencecah 40 tahun.

Namun bagi Pakar Perubatan Reproduktif dari Hospital Pakar DEMC, Dr. Zamri Abd. Rahim, usia bukanlah penghalang kepada individu untuk melalui proses kehamilan asalkan beberapa faktor diambil kira.

“Alasan itu tidak boleh gunakan dalam menyekat sesiapa saja untuk hamil. Malah jika seorang itu berusia 46 tahun dan datang berjumpa saya untuk mendapatkan rawatan kesuburan, saya tidak teragak-agak untuk membantu,” kata beliau.

Namun begitu katanya, beberapa faktor perlu diambil kira seperti keadaan kesihatan, kos yang perlu dan juga masa kerana ia semua bergantung kepada rezeki.

Menjelaskan lebih lanjut katanya, tahap kesuburan setiap individu itu berbeza. Ini berikutan usia wanita itu tidak sama dengan usia fungsi ovarinya. Kadangkala seseorang itu berusia 40 tahun ke atas, namun kilang ovarinya masih aktif menghasilkan telur dan dia masih mampu mengandung tanpa sebarang masalah.

Ada juga wanita yang masih muda, namun mengalami masalah penghasilan ovari dan golongan ini sangat memerlukan rawatan bagi membolehkan mereka hamil.

Namun begitu beliau berkata, sememangnya wanita yang berusia mempunyai risiko kehamilan dari segi penyakit seperti diabetis, tekanan darah tinggi dan sebagainya. Risiko terhadap kandungan seperti keguguran juga perlu diambil kira selain risiko kecacatan pada pada bayi.

Namun seandainya mereka mengambil langkah pencegahan seperti menjalani kehidupan sihat, tidak ada yang dirisaukan kerana ia adalah ketentuan daripada Ilahi.

Soal ketidaksuburan kata Dr. Zamri, tidak seharusnya diletakkan 100 peratus kepada wanita.

“Kehamilan melibatkan kerjasama antara suami dan isteri. Bukan sahaja wanita perlu menjalani rawatan, suami juga perlu melakukan pemeriksaan bagi mengenalpasti masalah yang dihadapi bersama,” katanya.

Menurut beliau 30 peratus ketidaksuburan dikenalpasti berpunca daripada wanita, 30 peratus lagi daripada lelaki, 30 peratus daripada kedua-duanya dan selebihnya disebabkan punca yang tidak diketahui.

Masalah biasa yang dihadapi oleh wanita berlaku di bahagian ovari, tiub falopio tersumbat, masalah fibroid, gejala endometriosis dan sebagainya. Masalah obesiti juga menurutnya boleh menjejaskan peluang kehamilan.

Lelaki pula berkemungkinan menghadapi masalah bilangan sperma berkualiti, tidak menghasilkan sperma dan sebagainya. Bagi lelaki yang mengalami masalah tiada sperma pada pancutan air mani mereka, doktor akan melakukan penyedutan dari testis kerana ia mungkin berlaku disebabkan saluran yang tersumbat.

Pemeriksaan teliti perlu dijalankan bagi mengenalpasti punca ketidaksuburan sebelum sesuatu rawatan itu dijalankan.

Menurut Dr. Zamri, tempoh masa untuk rawatan setiap individu berbeza bergantung kepada masalah yang mereka hadapi.

“Terdapat pelbagai jenis rawatan ditawarkan ketika ini dalam mengatasi masalah kesuburan. Kosnya juga sebenarnya masih rasional dan berpatutan,” katanya.

Beliau berkata, bagi wanita yang datang bertemunya untuk mendapatkan rawatan kesuburan, beliau akan melakukan analisis terperinci mengenai keadaan wanita tersebut.

“Punca masalah akan dikenalpasti dan kita akan terus melakukan rawatan tanpa menunggu masa terlalu lama,” katanya.

Biasanya seseorang wanita itu akan datang bertemu beliau selepas mencuba beberapa lama tetapi tidak berhasil.

Rawatan pertama yang biasa dilakukan adalah suntikan dalam rahim (IUI) yang mana terdapat dua cara sama ada melalui pengambilan ubat kesuburan clomip atau melalui suntikan gonadotrofin.

“Biasanya saya lebih gemar menggunakan kaedah suntikan kerana lebih berkesan dan ia sampai terus ke bahagian ovari. Walaubagaimanapun, ia masih bergantung kepada individu,” katanya.

Jika masih tidak berjaya pada percubaan pertama, rawatan IUI dilakukan sehingga tiga atau empat kali. Namun seandainya masih belum menunjukkan sebarang tanda-tanda, doktor akan menyarankan rawatan berikutnya iaitu persenyawaan in-vitro (IVF).

“Jika ada yang bertanya kepada saya yang mana lebih berkesan tentulah IVF kerana ia membolehkan kita memilih hanya telur yang terbaik dan embrio yang terhasil juga yang terbaik untuk dipindahkan ke dalam rahim,” katanya.

Menurutnya, pada satu rawatan IVF, antara lima hingga enam telur terbaik akan dipilih bagi disenyawakan dengan sperma terpilih untuk percubaan menghasilkan embrio.

Selepas dua atau tiga hari, doktor akan memilih embrio terbaik terus dipindahkan ke bahagian rahim.

“Rawatan IVF membolehkan antara dua hingga tiga embrio dimasukkan ke dalam rahim. Jika ia berjaya, maka pasangan tadi akan menjadi bayi kembar,” kata beliau.

Telur yang tidak digunakan boleh dibekukan bagi tujuan persenyawaan di masa hadapan. Namun bagi Dr. Zamri, beliau lebih gemar menggunakan embrio segar kerana peluangnya lebih tinggi berbanding yang dibekukan.

Rawatan alternatif/ suplemen

Tidak dinafikan, kebanyakan produk suplemen yang terdapat di pasaran ketika ini mendakwa ia mampu merawat masalah ketidaksuburan.

Menurut Dr. Zamri, dakwaan itu belum dibukti secara saintifik dan tiada kajian sahih dilakukan bagi mengesahkannya.

“Memiliki cahaya mata adalah impian semua pasangan yang berkahwin. Namun seandainya rezeki belum berpihak kepada mereka, segera berjumpa dengan doktor pakar bagi merungkai masalah yang dihadapi,” katanya.

Beliau tidak menggalakkan wanita mengambil produk yang terdapat di pasaran kerana ia tidak membantu menyelesaikan masalah yang dihadapi.

Katanya, masalah berkaitan kehamilan sangat berkait rapat dengan emosi. Kerana itu setiap pihak perlu berusaha kerana memiliki cahaya mata itu ibarat satu anugerah yang tidak terhingga.

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