Waspada Beri Makanan Pejal

Sering kali kita mendengar berita mengenai bayi tercekik barang mainan atau makanan termasuk tersedak susu. Ramai yang tentunya panik apabila terpaksa berhadapan dengan situasi berkenaan terutama bagi mereka yang tidak pernah menempuh pengalaman sedemikian.

Bertambah buruk apabila masalah tercekik yang dialami si kecil boleh membawa kepada kematian. Bagi mengelakkan masalah lebih buruk, sebaiknya ibu bapa dan pengasuh mengetahui asas mengenai bantuan kecemasan.

Perunding Pediatrik dan Neonatalogis Pusat Perubatan Tropicana, Dr Anushree Narayanan berkata, tercekik adalah salah satu sebab kematian yang tidak disengajakan dalam kalangan kanak-kanak khususnya bayi.

“Saluran pernafasan dan tenggorok yang sempit menyebabkan mereka berisiko untuk tercekik. Ketika tercekik, salur pernafasan dan tenggorok yang tertutup akan menghalang oksigen ke paru-paru dan seterusnya ke otak.

“Sebarang objek bersaiz kecil boleh menyebabkan bayi tercekik termasuklah bahan makanan, perkakasan rumah dan alat permainan selain susu.

“Selain tercekik, bayi berusia bawah empat bulan juga mudah mengalami risiko refluks gastroesofagus. Ia disebabkan otot perutnya yang masih belum matang,” katanya.

Refluks gastroesofagus berlaku apabila makanan atau minuman yang diambil tertolak semula ke saluran esofagus iaitu struktur seperti tiub yang menyambungkan mulut dengan perut.

Ia berlaku apabila pencerut esofagus (esophageal sphincter) tidak berfungsi dengan baik iaitu mencegah keadaan ini daripada berlaku.

Keadaan ini selalu terjadi dalam kalangan bayi berumur setahun ke bawah kerana fungsi pencerut esofagus masih belum matang sepenuhnya.

Kadangkala lebih memburukkan keadaan apabila pemberian susu melebihi jumlah yang diperlukan bayi. Lazimnya, bayi mengeluarkan semula susu yang diminum dalam tempoh 30 minit hingga satu jam selepas sesi penyusuan.

Tanda bayi tercekik

Bagi bayi berusia enam bulan ke atas, mereka sudah mula didedahkan kepada pengambilan makanan pejal. Makanan pejal terutama kekacang boleh menyebabkan bayi tercekik selain barang mainan yang bersaiz kecil dan mudah ditelan.

Saluran pernafasan bayi sangat kecil iaitu kira-kira tiga milimeter manakala si kecil yang berusia enam bulan ke atas memiliki saluran pernafasan berukuran lima milimeter.

Dinding saluran pernafasan bayi agak keras. Jika terdapat barang mainan atau makanan yang masuk ke dalamnya, ia boleh menutup saluran berkenaan, sekali gus menyukarkan bayi bernafas.

Ujar Dr Anushree, kebanyakan bayi yang mengalami masalah tercekik akan mula menunjukkan tanda seperti muka merah, mata besar kerana sukar bernafas, menangis dan akhirnya menjadi biru atau tidak bermaya.

“Apabila bayi tidak boleh bernafas dengan baik, otak juga menerima risikonya apabila oksigen tidak dapat disalurkan ke bahagian berkenaan.

“Jika berlaku dalam tempoh lama, ia sekali gus boleh menyebabkan kecacatan pada anggota atau otak selain boleh menyebabkan kematian,” katanya.

Justeru, bantuan kecemasan perlu dilakukan lebih awal jika menyedari bayi atau kanak-kanak mengalami masalah tercekik.

Tempoh yang panjang iaitu lebih daripada 20 minit selepas bayi tercekik tanpa mendapat bantuan kecemasan boleh menyebabkan kematian.

Kanak-kanak mungkin akan mengalami beberapa tanda ketika tercekik. Antaranya:

- Sesak nafas secara tiba-tiba.- Bunyi nafas tidak normal.- Menggenggam kerongkong.- Kawasan mulut dan bibir kebiru-biruan.- Bernafas dengan cepat.- Lubang hidung kembang-kempis setiap kali bernafas.- Pengsan.- Berhenti bernafas.

Kadangkala kanak-kanak akan tersedak jika makan makanan seperti kacang tanah jika objek berkenaan sangat kecil. Mereka akan mengalami:

- Batuk yang berterusan.- Termengah-mengah.- Tiada sebarang tanda.

Jika bayi mengalami masalah tersedak susu ketika tidur dengan posisi baring yang salah, ia akan memburukkan keadaan, apatah lagi jika susu yang dikeluarkan ditelan semula.

Ia boleh mengakibatkan jangkitan paru-paru atau pneumonia kerana susu yang diminum masuk ke dalam salur pernafasan bayi.

“Bayi perlu ditidurkan dalam posisi yang betul dengan bantuan sokongan bantal di kepala bagi meninggikan sedikit bahagian berkenaan.

“Selain itu, kepala bayi juga perlu mengiring sedikit bagi memudahkan susu yang dikeluarkan tidak ditelan semula.

“Sebaiknya, ketika sesi penyusuan atau bayi tidur, ibu bapa atau pengasuh perlu mengawasi setiap masalah yang berlaku bagi mengelakkan bayi tersedak,” katanya.

Kesan buruk tercekik.

- Jangkitan pada paru-paru seperti radang paru-paru.- Kerosakan otak akibat kekurangan oksigen.- Kematian akibat radang, bengkak paru-paru yang teruk atau kekurangan oksigen ke otak.

Bantuan kecemasan

Seandainya bayi boleh menangis dan batuk, ini bermakna saluran pernafasan masih terbuka dan ini menunjukkan ibu bapa boleh melakukan bantuan kecemasan yang bersesuaian.

Ketika menyusukan bayi dan mendapati anak tidak selesa, batuk atau sukar bernafas, segera iringkan badannya dan menepuk bahagian belakang badan bagi mengeluarkan semua lebihan susu yang diminum.

Elakkan daripada mengangkat atau meletakkan bayi dalam keadaan duduk sekiranya anak mengalami masalah tersedak susu kerana ia hanya boleh memberi kesan buruk kepada mereka.

Jika ibu atau bapa pasti anak tercekik disebabkan barang mainan atau makanan, segera lakukan bantuan kecemasan dengan kaedah betul bagi mengurangkan risiko kematian.

“Pastikan kepala bayi tidak didongakkan bagi mengelakkan barangan, makanan atau susu termasuk semula, malah ia mungkin menyebabkannya masuk dengan lebih dalam ke saluran pernafasan dan sukar dikeluarkan.

“Namun diingatkan supaya ibu, bapa atau sesiapa yang berdepan situasi ini tidak memasukkan jari ke dalam mulut bayi bagi mengeluarkan barang mainan atau makanan jika ia tidak kelihatan dengan jelas.

“Jika mangsa berhenti bernafas, pengsan dan badan menjadi biru, segera lakukan kaedah pemulihan pernafasan (CPR) sementara menunggu bantuan pakar,” katanya.

- Minta bantuan.- Buka mulut anak anda perlahan-lahan. Keluarkan objek jika ia jelas kelihatan.- Jika tidak berjaya, tepuk di antara tulang belikat mangsa dengan tapak tangan anda dengan kedudukan kepala mangsa lebih rendah daripada badan.

Jangan lakukan:

- Masukkan jari anda ke dalam mulut mangsa bagi mengeluarkan barang mainan atau makanan yang tidak kelihatan.- Mendongakkan kepala mangsa.

Langkah pencegahan:

- Jangan benarkan anak anda makan ketika bermain.- Sediakan makanan dalam bentuk saiz kunyahan.- Pastikan lantai, meja dan tempat mereka bermain bebas daripada objek kecil seperti butang, guli, duit syiling, pin dan manik.- Elakkan makanan yang mudah tercekik bagi kanak-kanak seperti kacang tanah, gula-gula dan bertih jagung.- Elakkan memberi alat permainan yang mempunyai bahagian kecil kepada kanak-kanak.- Pelajari bantuan kecemasan dan langkah yang patut dilakukan jika anak anda tercekik.

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